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Eli phepha lokuqala/home page, liqulathe iinkcukacha gabalala ezininzi malunga Namagqwetha Omthetho Kwanomthetho eMzantsi Afrika.Apha ungafumana igqwetha okanye ufumane ifem yomthetho woMzantsi Afrika, ukhangela ngokwendawo.Ukuze ufumane ulwazi ngemiba ekhethekileyo yomthetho khetha kwisihloko osifunayo apha ngasentla.Kule sayithi ye-web ungaphanda ngomthetho ngezihloko ezininzi ezahlukeneyo.Jonga Imithetho engaphezu kwama-250 kwikompyutha/online.Le sayithi yeweb liziko elibanzi lezomthetho elinemibuzo engaphezulu kwama-365 ebuzwa rhoqo malunga nomthetho WoMzantsi Afrika.

Nokuba ufuna ukuqhagamshelana Negqwetha ngokungxamisekileyo okanye ungafuna ukwenza oko kwixesha elizayo, ngoku lixesha elifanelekileyo lokufunda ngakumbi malunga Namagqwetha Nangomthetho WoMzantsi Afrika.–Oku kungakunceda ekwenzeni izigqibo ezisekwe kulwazi xa ufuna iinkonzo Zegqwetha!

  1. Abiza malini Amagqwetha kwaye ndingazinciphisa njani iindleko zam?
  2. Kungenzeka ntoni xa ndingenakuba nayo imali yeenkonzo Zegqwetha?
  3. Isebenza njani inkqubo kaNgokungabikho Mpumelelo – Ukungabikho kwesakhiwo Sentlawulo esimiselweyo xa usebenzisana Negqwetha?
  4. Ziziphi iimeko emazithathelwe ingqalelo phambi kokusa ingxwabangxwaba zasemthwethweni enkundleni yamatyala?
  5. Zeziphi iindidi ezahlukeneyo zomanakalo umntu angazifakela ibango?
  6. Igqwetha lam laliphumelela ityala lam, kubandakanya neendleko. Ngoku lindinike ityala lentlawulo efunekayo. Kusebenza njani oku?
  7. Yintoni inxalenye yomsebenzi wemihla ngemihla owenziwa ligqwetha?
  8. Umntu uba namfundo yiphi ukusebenza Njengegqwetha eMzantsi Afrika?
  9. Yintoni imisebenzi yenotari/notary nowekhonveyensa/conveyancer?
  10. Zohlulwe iindidi ezingundoqo zomthetho eMzantsi Afrika?
  11. Siyintoni isakhiwo seenkundla zamatyala eMzantsi Afrika?
  12. Yintoni umsebenzi WeSosayethi Yomthetho?
  13. Ungandikhusela njani UMthetho omtsha Wokudlakazeliswa xa ndidlakazeliswa?
  14. Kufuneka ndenze njani ukuba ndiyadlakazeliswa okanye ndiyoyikiswa ngetyala lemali endinalo?
  15. Ingaba imali Ekwiakhawunti Yetrasti Yamagqwetha ihlawula inzala?

 

1. Abiza malini Amagqwetha kwaye ndingazinciphisa njani iindleko zam? 

 

Intshayelelo: Ngokulandela inkqubo YamaNgesi, umsebenzi wobugqwetha eMzantsi Afrika yahlulwe yayi-‘bar’ kunye ne-‘side bar’.

Amagqwetha/iiadvocates (ezibizwa ngokuba zii-barristers eNgilane) ziyinxalenye yamagqwetha ekuthiwa yi-‘bar’ kwaye aziwa gabalala ngokuba yikhansile/‘counsel’. Bagxila ekulungiseleleni amatyala enkundla, ukuvela ezinkundleni nezinye iikomiti zeenkundla ze banike izimvo ngomthetho.Abavumelekanga ukuba babe namaqabane kwaye bangamela umntu xa becetyiswa ligqwetha laloo mtu eliyi-attorney.EtiMnga 2016 kwakukho amagqwetha omthetho angama-7620 asebenzayo eMzantsi Afrika, onke awela phantsi koncedo loMcebisi Gabalala Wekhansile Yamagqwetha/YoMzantsi Afrika.

Iiatheni/Attorneys (ezibizwa ngokuba zii- solicitors/amagqwetha eUK) enza iqumrhu elibizwa ngokuba yi‘side bar’ ngesiNgesi abizwa ngokuba ngamagqwetha, ii-‘lawyers’. Igama elithi 'amagqwetha' ligama lesiXhosa legqwetha.IsiXhosa lulwimi lwesiNguni.Ezinye iilwimi zesiNguni sisiZulu, isiSwati nesiNdebele.Igama elithi 'babueledi' ligama leSetswana legqwetha/ummeli womthetho.ISetswana lulwimi lweSeSotho.Ezinye iilwimi zeSeSotho zezi: ISesotho neSepedi. IiAtheni/Attorneys ngabasebenzi bomthetho gabalala bomthetho, abenza zonke iintlobo zomsebenzi womthetho.Baphatha amatyala omthetho, basebenze ngqo nabaxumi ze basebenze njengoosomashishini abazimeleyo okanye kumaqumrhu amancinci, aphakathi, okanye amakhulu.EtiMnga ka-2016 kwakukho amagqwetha ama-24 912 amagqwetha omthetho eMzantsi Afrika, awela phantsi kohlelo Kwequmrhu Lamagqwetha eMzantsi Afrika. Eli ziko leweb Lingamagqwetha/Attorneys

Umthetho WokuqhutywaKwezobugqwetha wasayinwa kutshanjengomthetho nguMongameli uZuma – Ikhansile Yokuqhuba Ezomthetho inamalungu asi-7, ama-3 kuwo aya kukhethwa Ngumphathiswa Wezobulungisa, aya kulawula umsebenzi weeatheni/attorneys’ noweeadvokethi/advocates’ phantsi kophahla olunye –Amacandelo 1 no-2 Esahluko 10 (Iziko Lesizwe Namalungiselelo Enguqu/National Forum and Transitional Provisions) aqala ukusebenza ngo-1 Februwari 2015.Amalungiselelo Omthetho Wamagqwetha Aziiatheni 53 ka-1979 aya kuhlala esebenza ze iisosayethi ezine zomthetho wamaphondo zihlale zingamasebe wabasebenza ngolawulo lomsebenzi wobugqwetha de i-LPC iqalise ukusebenza kwiminyaka emithhathu ezayo.

Iindleko Zomthetho ziindleko zeeatheni nezamagqwetha aziiadvokhethiekufuneka zihlawulwe ngulowo umelweyo.Igqwetha lakho liyakukubonisa kwasekuqaleni umbono gabalala wendleko zeenkonzo zakhe.

Iindleko zegqwetha eliyi-conveyer zibekwe kwizinga elingatshintshiyo elisemthethweni.Ukuba ucinga ngokuthenga impahla engashukumiyo/immovable property, ungazibala iindleko ZeGqwetha eliyiAtheni, Ezokubhalisa Nezebhondi apha:

Kwimiba ebandakanya inkqubo yomthetho wabahlali, nokuba Kukwinkundla Kamantyi okanye Inkundla Ephakamileyo, intlawulo yeendleko kwizinga elizinzileyo lentlawulo esemthethweni.Izihlomelo zamva zafakwa kwigazethi ngo-23 Janyuwari 2015 zaza zaqalisa ukusebenza ngo-24 Februwari 2015kwaye ungayifunda apha. Ukuba iklayenti iyavuma kwasekuqaleni kwaye inolwazi olupheleleyo, igqwetha lingabiza imali ephezulu.

Kwimiba engafuni zimangalo (ityala elingafikiyo enkundleni yamatyala), iindleko ziya kuba njengoko bekuvunyelwene neatheni, kwaye akholisa ukusekwa ngendleko ebalwa ngeyure, (okanye inxalenye yoko) ndleko leyo eya kwaziswa kuwe phambi kokuba igqwetha liqalise ukusebenza.

Ukuba ungene kwisivumelwano ‘sentlawulo yokuthandabuzela into enokwehla’ negqwetha lakho/, i.t.o Iindleko Zomthetho Wokunokuthi kwenzeke ka-1997/contingency Fees Act of 1997, igqwetha lingahlawulwa umrhubo ongaphezulu okanye libize isixa esithile ekhulwini ngemali efunyenwe apho kulowo limmangaleleyo.

Kumatyala obugebenga, igqwetha lingakubiza ngeyure, ngemini okanye umrhumo obizwa elizweni lonke ukuphatha umba wonke ngokupheleleyo –bona icandelo lethu Ngomthetho wolwaphulo-mthethoukuze ufumane ezinye iinkcukacha. I-Nevetec yinkampani ejolise ekucimeni iirekhodi zamatyala okanye ekufumaneni izetifikethi zemvume ye-SAP, kwaye unokufunda isishwankathelo seenkonzo zabo apha.

Ukunciphisa iindleko zakho zomthetho

Ukuba uxoxile ngesiseko nohlobo lwemali yomthetho kwaneendleko zegqwetha lakho, uthathe inyathelo lokuqala elifunekayo ukulawula intlawulo yakho neendleko zakho zomthetho.Kodwa ke kukho, izinto ezombalwa onokuzenza ngeli xesha lalo mba ukukunceda ukulawula intlawulo neendeko gabalala:

  • Yiba ngozilungiseleleyo. Ngexesha lodliwano ndlebe lwakho lokuqala,yiza neenkcukacha kangangoko unako ze wabelane ngazo negqwetha lakho. Bhala phantsi imibuzo ofuna igqwetha liyiphensule. Oku kunokukunceda ekunciphiseni ixesha elithathwa ligqwetha liphanda umba wakho kwaye liqokolela iinkcukacha.
  • Yiba ngogqibeleleyo.Xelela igqwetha lakho zonke iinkcukacha. Musa ukuthatha ngokungathi igqwetha lakho lazi konke. Ukuze ube nokumelana nombandela wakho ngempumelelo, kuya kulinceda igqwetha lakho ukwazi kangangoko linako ngombandela wakho. Lonke ulwazi lwakho kufanele lugcinwe luyimfihlelo.
  • Yiba nenkuthalo. Zama ukuba mfutshane kangangoko.
  • Udinga ukunxibelelana negqwetha lakho ngokuphathelelene nombandela wakho ze ulungiselele iintlanganiso. Ukuba kwenzeka into entsha kufuneka wazise igqwetha lakho. Loo nto ingayitshintsha indlela elivelela ngayo izinto ngalo mbandela, nto leyo esindisa wena kunye negqwetha lakho ixesha kunye nemali.

Phonononga I-akhawunti yakho.Qinisekisa ukuba iakhawunti yakho ayiqulathanga zindleko ezingaphaya kwezo ubuvume ukuzihlawula. Amatyala Eendleko yenye yeendleko eziphambili zabacebisi bezomthetho eMzantsi Afrika apho unokufunda okuninzi khona

Umphezulu Wephepha

 

2. Kungenzeka ntoni xa ndingenakho ukuhlawula iinkonzo zegqwetha?

 

I-inshorensi Yezomthetho 

Uninzi lwethu luya kufumana iingxaki zezomthetho ebomini lwethu.Ukuba unexhala ngeendleko zezomthetho, i-inshorensi yezomthetho ingayinto ebalulekileyo ukuba uyithathele ingqalelo.U-Legalwise yenye Yeenkampani zeinshorensi zomthetho eziphambili eMzantsi Afrika kwaye unokuyijonga imibono yabo apha.

Ulwazi Lwezomthetho

Uninzi lolwazi ngezomthetho kungoku nje luyafumaneka on-line ngaphandle kwemfuneko yokunxibelelana negqwetha/attorney – ulwazi olulolo hlobo lubandakanya: Uphando Yinkampani, Imibuzo Ngamatyala, Uphando Lomphathi/Director Search, Uphando Ngesivumelwano, Ukulandelela Abaxumi kunye Nolawulo Lwamatyala/Ukuphathwa Kwamatyala. I-Legal City yenye Yabo banika imveliso yabo yezomthetho ngekompyutha/on-line kwaye unokufunda umbono gabalala wemveliso yabo apha.  Iinkonzo Zobunobhalane zikaKilgetty/KilgettySecretarial Services yenye yeenkampani yeenkonzo zobunobhalane ezikwizinga eliphezulu eMzantsi Afrika, kwaye unokufunda ngombono gabalala weenkonzo zabo apha.

Abacebisi Boshishino ngotywala/Liquor Buzniz Consultantsngabanye babaphambili kubhaliso lweelayisensi zotywala eMzantsi Afrika kwaye unokufunda isishwankathelo seenkonzo zabo apha.

Iinkontraki Zezomthetho

Asikukhuthazi ukuba usebenzise iikontraki ‘ezingekho lushishinweni ngelo xesha’/‘off the shelve’ contractsxa ungena kushishino olufana nokuthenga, ukuthengisa, ukuqeshisa umhlaba – ukwenza oku kuya kufuna ukuba uqhagamshelane negqwetha.

Uncedo Lwezomthetho eMzantsi Afrika

Uncedo Lwezomthetho eMzantsi Afrika lugunyaziswe Ngumthetho siseko WeRiphabliki YoMzantsi Afrika (Umthetho 108 ka-1996)ukunika uncedo lwezomthetho kwimiba yobukrelemnqa neyoluntu kubantu abahlwempuzekileyo nabangenakuzinceda ngendleko Karhulumente. Apha luludwelweeofisi Zoncedo Lezomthetho SA/Legal Aid SA offices, zeapha ibe luludwe Lweenkundla ZikaMantyi. 

Ngenxa yokuba i-Legal Aid SA ifumana imali yerhafu yokuyisebenzisa kwabahlwempuzekileyo, kufuneka iqinisekise ukuba lowo mntu ufaka isicelo soncedo lomthetho uhlwempuzekile ngokwenene.Oku kubizwa ngokuba Luvavanyo Lokuba nezinto/Means Test. Umntu ngamnye ocela uncedo kufuneka atsho ukuba ufumana imali engakanani ngenyanga njengentlawulo okanye ingeniso nokuba loo mntu unantoni eyeyakhe, njengemoto okanye indlu.Apha lunxibelelwano nolwazi lokuba ngubani ofanelekileyo ukufumana uncedo lwe-Legal Aid SA. Uninzilwamasebe ezomthetho kwiiyunivesithi anamaziko ezomthetho apho abaxumi banokuzisa khona izikhalazo zabo.

Inkundla Yamabango Amancinci  - Amabango afikelela ku-R15 000

Ukuba unebango nomntu elifikelela kwixabiso le-R15 000 (landiswe ukusuka ku-R12 000 ukuya ku-R15 000 ngo-1 Epreli 2104) ungaya Kwinkundla Yamabango Amancinci- Apha luludwe lweenkundla Zamabango Amancinci- SCC’s, akwiiNkundla ZikaMantyi. Awunakusebenzisa igqwethaKwinkundla Yamabango Amancinci/SCC kodwa unokulifumana icebiso kwigqwetha ukulungiselela ityala lakho.Iinkonzo ze-SCC zisimahla kodwa inkundla Ibiza intlawulo encinci yokuhlawulela iindleko zokubizelwa enkundleni kwaye intlawulo Yesikhulu Samapolisa Enkundla Yomthetho.(Apha luludwe Lweeofisi Zezikhulu Zamapolisa).Ikhomishina ichophela iinkqubo ze yenze izigqibo zokuba ngowuphi olungileyo ingowuphi ongalunganga.Ukuba ibango lakho lingaphezulu kwe-R15 000 unokunikezela inxalenye yebango ukuze ibe yi-R15 000 okanye ngaphantsi.

Apha ngumzobo weenkqubo wokugqitha kwiinkundla zamabango amancinci.

Imiba Yomthetho Yomxumi

Imiba emininzi yabaxumi bezomthetho ingasonjululwa ngaphandle koncedo lwegqwetha.Jonga icandelo lethu elimalunga noMthetho womxumi ochaza amalungelo akho nokuba ngubani ofanele ukuqhagamshelana naye xa ngabe unengxaki. 

Imiyalelo yenkundla egunyazisa intlawulo yenxalenye yomvuzo nebizwa ngokuba zii- Garnishee orders kunye nenzala

yimiyalelo yenkundla efuna ukuba umqeshi womntu onetyala ahlawule inxalenye yemivuzo yabo nenzala kumboleki/lowo ubolekayo, nto leyo echaphazela izigidi ezi-3 zabasebenzi eMzantsi Afrika. (funda ngakumbi ) Uphando luka-2012 lwe-by law firm ENS Africalubonise ukuba uninzi lwemiyalelo alulunganga kwaye alwamkelekanga – abaqeshi bangaqhagamshelana nomsombululi weengxaki ezilolu hlobo obizwa ngokuba yi-Summit Garnishee Solutions oya kuthi enze uphando.

Imibutho Emiselwe Ngokusemthethweni

Imibutho Emiselwe ngokusemthethweni inegunyalokuncedisaekusombululeni ingxawabangxwaba zomthetho ngokukhawuleza kunokuba iinkundla zamatyala bezinokwenza ngako.Kukholisa ukungabizi mali ininzi ukusebenzisa iinkundla kwaye iingxoxo zisonjululwa ngokukhawuleza.

Zangaphambi Kweenkonzo Zoncedo Lomthetho/Attorney Pro Bono Services

Asiyoyemibutho efumana Inzuzo/Not for Profit Organizations (NPO’s) kwakunye nabantu abahlelelekileyo, (abo bantu banemali encinci okanye abangenamali) abadinga uncedo lomthetho bangafaka izicelo kwi-Mibutho Yemithetho Yamaphondo/Provincial Law Societieseya kuba nokufikelela izicelo zabo ze bazigqithisele kwimibutho Yabameli kunye Neenkundla Zomthetho futhi bazivavanye abaya kuthatha bajonge izicelo zabo ze bazigqithisele Kubameli/Amagqwetha Nakwiinkampani Zomthetho ezinobugcisa ngemiba efana nombandela wakho. Amagqwetha enza umsebenzi ngesiseko saphambi kwexesha/pro bono njengenxalenye yeenkonzo zoluntu.Ngokwe-LSSA, ngo-2013 imibutho yomthetho yagqithisela i-2000 lemiba kumagqwetha ngesiseko saphambi kwexesha/pro bono basis.Nceda uqaphele: kuba i-NGO ifake isicelo, loo nto ayithethi kuthi uya kuncedwa. Ngokwesikhokhelo gabalala, kuya kuxhomekeka kuhlobo loncedo lomthetho olufunwayo, nokuba i-NGO isekwe ngokusemthethweni na,kwaye inengxelo yezemali ezihloliweyo ukwenzela ukuba Umbutho Womthetho/Law Society ubone ukuba ingaba i- NGO inganako na ukuhlawula umrhumo wayo wasemthethweni.

Ungafumana uludwe olupheleleyo lwamagama abantu bamaphondo onokunxulumana nabo kunye neenombolo ezikwicandelo lethu nge-Ngomthetho we-NGO /NGO Law.

Amaxhoba okuxhatshazwa ngokwamalungelo oluntu, ukucalucalulwa okungafanelekanga, intetho yentiyo okanye ukutshutshiswa? 

  • Ungaya Kwinkundla Yolingano- apha luludwe lwazo zonke Iinkundla Zolingano (Ezikwiinkundla Zikamantyi). Nawuphi na umntu okanye Umbutho osebenza ngokunokwawo okanye endaweni yomnye ungazisa ityala Kwinkundla Yolingano. Ezi nkundla zinegunya lokuxolelanisa nokulamla, zinike izithintelo, zigunyazise intlawulo yomonakalo okanye zigunyazise ukuba umntu acele uxolo.
  • Ukucalucalulwa kwakho kungakwenye yezi meko: ubuhlanga, isini, ukukhulelwa, isimo somtshato, inkcubeko okanye imvelaphi, iminyaka yobudala, umbala, ukukekelela kwisimo sesini esithile, iminyaka yobudala, ukukhubazeka, inkolo, inkqubo yempucuko, ulwimi okanye ukuzalwa.Akukho mfuneko yokuba ube negqwetha xa uzisa ityala Enkundleni Yolingano. Ucalucalulo emsebenzini kujongwana nalo Ziinkundla Zabasebenzi.
  • Usenokuvelela Nekomishini Yamalungela Abantu EMzantsi Afrika/South African Human Rights Commission
  • Ukuba uziva ngathi ucalu-calulwe ngenxa yesini, ungafaka isikhalazo Kwikomishini Yolingano Ngesini/Commission on Gender Equality
  • Usenokuya nakwiiofisi Zomthetheleli Woluntu/Public Protector xa ufuna baphande amabango malunga nokuphi koku kulandelayo: ulawulo okanye urhulumente ongenelisiyo, amagosa karhulumente asebenzisa kakubi amagunya abo, ukuziphatha kakubi kwabasebenzi bakarhulumente, ukusetyenziswa kakubi kweemali zoluntu ngamagosa oluntu. Umkhuseli Woluntu usenokusombulula iingxwabangxwaba, ze asingisele imiba kwezinye iiarhente. Kwingxelo yonyaka kaAgasti 2013 Kwipalamente Umkhuseli Woluntu wavelisa ukuba iofisi yakhe ifumene izikhalazo ezingama- 33 77 zexesha lika-2012 ukuya ku-2013, ezazingaphezulu malunga nama-6400 kunakunyaka ongaphambili, kwaye kwagqityezelwa ama-22 400 azo. Apha lunxibelelwano lweeofisi Zomkhuseli Woluntu.

Umyolelo wokugqibela kunye nobungqina

Umbutho Wamagqwetha OMzantsi Afrikakunye namalungu abavoti, minyaka le uququzelela Iveki kaWill, kunye neenkampani ezininzi zamagqwetha nabameli abakhulu bezomthetho zinikezela iinkonzo zazo ngaphandle kokufuna intlawulo, kumalungu oluntu anqwenela ukubhalelwa imimiselo yezamafa(will)neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezinqwenela ukuba imimiselo yazo yezamafa ibhalwe ziingcaphephe ezinamava neziqeqeshelwe oko. Eli lelinye lamanyathelo abo okuqala.Apha lunxibelelwano lwesayithi yeweb olufanelekileyo.

IPro Scripto ngabanyebabavavanyi abaphambili bamaxwebhu asenkundleni eMzantsi Afrika – ukuba unamathandabuzo ngokuphathelele kubunyani bexwebhu(njengomyolelo) isandla sokusayina okanye isandla ekubhalwe ngaso, ungaqhagamshelana nabo apha.

Iziko Lezoncedo Lomthetho

I-LRC liziko lezomthetho elizimeleyo elingenangeniso elifuna ukusebenzisa umthetho ukulandela ubulungisa, ukulingana kunye nokubona amalungelo entlalo nezoqoqosho.Oku bakwenzela abo bangenaluncedo kwaye becalucalulwa, kubandakanya abahlwempuzekileyo, abantu abangenamakhaya namihlaba ngenxa yobuhlanga,ukuhlelwa, isini ubulima okanye ngesizathu sobuhlanga, izinga,ezemali kunye neemeko zemvelaphi.Baqesha ngaphezu kwama-65 lamagqwetha nabasebenzi eGoli, eThekwini, ePitoli naseRhini kwaye bakholisa ukusebenza kunye neminye imibutho yezentlalo yoluntu.

Amagqwetha Ezamalungelo Abantu

Ii-LHR ngumbutho ozimeleyo wezamalungelo abantu onoxwebhu olude lwentshukumo yamalungelo oluntu kunye nemibutho yomdla wemithetho yabantu eMzantsi Afrika.I-LHR isebenzisa umthetho njengesixhobo senguqu kuluntu LoMzantsi Afrika.Ukuza kuthi ga apha zinika iinkonzo ezisimahla zezomthetho kwabahlelelekileyo, abangenakuzenzela nto nabantu kwanabahlali abahlwempuzekileyo, kuquka abo bangagebemi kunye nabemi boMzantsi Afrika abaxhatshazelwa amalungelo abo.Banamaziko abo Ezomthetho eGoli, ePitoli naseThekwini, kwaneeofisi eStellenbosch naseUpington.

Umbutho Wamalungiselelo Angaphambi kweenkonzo Zoncedo/ProBono.Org

Umbutho wamalungelo Angaphambi Kweenkonzo Zoncedo/ProBonoulungiselela iinkonzo zomthetho ezisimahla ukusuka kwiingcaphephe zomthetho zabahlwempuzekileyo. Njengoko uMzantsi Afrika uzabalezela ukoyisa ilifa localucalulo olumiselwe ngokomthetho ze lujonge indlala egqubayo,engapheliyo, Imibutho ebizwa ngokuba Yimibutho Eququzelela uncedo phambi kokwulenzelwa/ProBono.Org ilungiselela iinkonzo zomthetho Zemibutho Eququzelela kwangaphambili/ProBono.Org amawaka Eerandi zabaxumi abahlwempuzekileyo nto leyo abayenza ngeenkonzo ngonxibelelwano lwabo lwamaziko ezomthetho lwabahlwempuzekileyo. Umbutho wokuqala nokuphela kwawo onje ngalo kweli lizwe loMzantsi Afrika, amawaka eendlela zeenguqu zalo ezintsha ezikwizinga elifanele uncedo olukwizinga eliphezulu oluvela kwiinkonzo zomthetho zabucala kwabo bahlaleleke kakhulu.Umsebenzi wabo ujolise hayi kuphela ekwenzeni ngcono amancedo omthetho kwabahlelelekileyo, kodwa ukuzibandakanya ekusebenzeleni inguqu yomsebenzi wezomthetho iyenze izibandakanye kwaye ibe namandla ekukhuthazeni amalungelo abahlwempuzekileyo, kunye nolawulo lomthetho.

Ezinye zeenkonzo zabo zibandakanya ukunika uncedo lomthetho kwangaphambili okanye ngaphandle kwentlawulo kubaxumi abangaphezulu kwe-6 500 ngonyaka ngokusebenzisa iiofisi zethubeziseGauteng neziseThekwini; sisebenzisa iziko lokubonisa nokwamkela apho abaxumi kuqhagamshelwana kunye nabo, bahlelwe ze basingisiselwe kumagqwetha omthetho angahlawulelwayo futhi babambe iiklinikhi ezisimahla ezingamancedo omthetho ze babe neeklinikhi zomthetho ezisimahla zeembacu ezivela ngaphandle,abantu abaneengxaki zezindlu, abantu abafumana inkohlakalo yamapolisa, abaxumi abaneengxaki zomthetho, ii-NGOs nee-CBOs ezifuna uncedo lomthetho, kunye namashishini afuna ukuqala uncedo lwezomthetho, phakathi kwezinye izinto.

Ukusombulula ingxwabangxwaba ngaphandle kokuya enkundleni yamatyala

Iingxaki ezininzi zezomthetho zingasonjululwa kungadanga kwayiwa enkundleni yamatyala kwaye oku kukholisa ukuba yindlela engenandleko yokusombulula iimpikiswano.Iindlela ezahlukeneyo zokusombulula iingxwabangxwaba ngaphandle kokuya kwiinkundla zamatyala zibandakanya:

Uthethathethwano – nto leyo ethetha ukuba abantu baneengxoxo nokuthetha ngeengxaki zabo omnye nomnye kwaye bazame ukuyisombulula ngokuza nesisombulululo esilungele omabini amacala.

Uthethathethwano/Ungenelelo – uthethathethwano lwenzeka xa abantu abanengxaki bevuma ukuba babe nomntu wesithathu ongenelela njengomthethetheleli wokubanceda ukuba basombulule ingxaki yabo.Ukusukela ngomhla we-13 Matshi 2014 eminye yemithetho elawulayo kwiinkqubo Zeenkundla ZikaMantyi zafakelwa izihlomelo kwaye kungoku nje zithathwe ukwaziswa kwiinkundla –ezihlonyelwe uxolelaniso kwinkqubo yenkundla yamatyala. Ungafunda ngakumbi apha ngokuba kutheni ungenelelo lukhetheka kunokuya enkundleni yomthetho.

Ukulamla – kwenzeka xa abantu abanengxaki bevuma ukuba nomntu wesithathu (obizwa ngokuba ngumxolelanisi) ukuba amamele iingxwabangxwaba zabo ze athathe izigqibo zokuba omabini amaqela ayavumelana.

Ukuxhaswa Kwetyala Ngemali–ngo-2004 champerty (igama elivuma ukuxhaswa ngemali kwetyala lasemthethweni njengelingekho mthethweni) kungoku nje lavunywa njengelisemthethweni xa Inkundla Ephezulu Yamatyala ivumela ukusetyenziswakoncedo lwemali oluvela ngaphandle kwimiba yamatyala. Ngelixa amagqwetha engavumelekanga ukuthatha ama-25% esixa Sisonke sentlawulo, akukho mthetho eMzantsi Afrika ogunyazisa indlela imali enikiweyo emayahlulahlulwe ngayo phakathi komxhasi ngemali kunyenommangali.Ngoku kukho amaziko akhoyo ambalwa abucala emzantsi Afrika azixhasa ngemali yokuthethathethwano lwezomthetho, athenga amabango okanye izigwebo, 'azixhasa nabanye/co-investing' kunye nomboleki-mali okanye umbangi okanye ukuxhasa ityala ngemali, uthethathethwano kunye nentlawulo yebango.Iziko elixhasa ityala lenkundla ngemali kufuneka libe ligqwetha elisemthethweni, njengoko lo mba unokwenza ungquzulwano lomdla.Inokuba kumdla wegqwetha ukuzinzisa ityala apho bekukho ithutyana lokuphumelela, nangona ityala ukuhlawula kwangoko kungaluncedo olukhulu kummangali.

Abacebisi bakwa-Christopher/Christopher Consulting banika uludwe lwezisombululo (zenkxaso–mali) zamatyala kwaye unokufunda umbono gabalala weenkonzo zabo apha.

Ityala le-Class Action/Class Action Lawsuit –i-class action ingachazwa gabalala njengenye ebandakanya inkqubo yokusetyenziswa kakubi kwizinga eliphezulu.Phambi kokuba i’class action ibe nokusekwa umntu kufuneka kuqala afake isicelo ngempumelelo enkundleni yamatyala ukuze siqinisekiswe njenge ‘class’.I-class action yokuqala eyaba nempumelelo yeeza nabahambisi bezonka abaxoxa ngokumiselwa kwexabiso lokuhanjiswa kwesonka Kwinkundla Yomthetho Siseko ngo-2013.Ngelo xesha ngoAgasti 2014 abahlali - phantsi bakwaTransnet bafumana imvume yokuqhubeleka ukulwa njengamaqela emithwalo ezithuthi nawamalungiselelo enkxaso alwa nalawo angakarhulumente kunye neengxowa-mali zomhlala-phantsi ezimbini eyazixhasayo.Abahlali phantsi abafumana imali yomhlala-phantsi kwezi ngxowa-mali baya kubandakanywa njengesiqhelo kwi ‘class action’ ngaphandle kokuba bakhetha ukungabiyonxalenye yoko.

 Umphezulu Wephepha

 

3. Isebenza njani indlela Yokungaphumeleli -nokungabikho Komrhumo xa usebenza

Nommmeli Womthetho / Attorney?

 

Oku kusingiselwa kuko njengamalungiselelo omrhumo onokufuneka nto leyo ethetha ukuba Igqwetha okanye Iziko Lomthetho liya kukubiza intlawulo kuphela xa beliphumelele ityala lakho.Oku kuya kuseka amalungiselelo omrhumo woko kunokwenzeka ngokommiselo WoMthetho Wentlawulo yokunokuthi kwenzeke ka-1997/Contingency Fees Act, 1997. (Umthetho nombolo 66 ka-1997)Xa kunokwenzeka igqwetha lakho lilahlwe lityala lakho, awusayi kubopheleleka nangeziphi na iindleko. Ukuba igqwetha lakho liyaphumelela liya kuba negunya lokuba likuhlawulise umrhumo ongaphezulu okanye isixa ekhulwini salowo ubemangalelwe.

Ukuba umrhumo wempumelelo ungaphezulu kunalowo uqhelekileyo Wegqwetha, umrhumo ongaphezulu kangako:

  • Ungangabingaphezulu komrhumo oqhelekileyo Wegqwetha ngaphaya kwe-100 ekhulwini.
  • Kwimeko apho ibango elibizwa ngemali, lingekho ngaphezulu kwama-25 ekhulwini lwesixa-mali Sisonke esinikiweyo okanye nasiphi isixa esinikwe Ngumxumi ngenxa yeziphumo zenkqubo.
  • Amabango okubotshelelwa ngumthetho
  • Amabango aphikisana ne-Road Accident Fund (RAF)
  • Amabango okusetyenziswa ngendlela eneyiyo yobugqirha/medical malpractice
  • Amabango eembophelelo zomthetho, umzekelo, amabango alwa Nomphathiswa Wamapolisa, Wezempilo, Wezothutho kunye ne-SANRAL.

Umrhumo onokuthi ufuneke ungasebenza kwezi meko zilandelayo:

Iingxoxo zokuqala zokuxabisa ibango lakho zikholisa ukuba simahla.Jonga icandelo lethu Lomthetho Wokulinyazwa/ukuhlukunyezwa komntuukufumana iinkcukacha ezingaphaya.

Umphezulu Wephepha

 

 

4. Zeziphi iimeko ekufanelwe ukuba zijongwe phambi kokusa ukruthakruthwano /

ukungavumelani ngomthetho enkundleni yamatyala? 

 

Ukuba awunako ukusombulula ingxwabangxwaba kunye nomnye umntu ngenkqubo yengxoxo, kwaye ukuba akukho ndlela yimbi yomthetho ekhoyo, ungafuna Imbuyekezo enkundleni yamatyala, ungafuna imbuyekezo ezinkundleni zamatyala.Nokuba iimeko zithini na, nabani oyinxalenye yokruthakruthwano unelungelo elophuliweyo, okanye unokhuseleko olusemthethweni kwibango eliziswe kuye.Olu luvo luvakalisawa kwintetho ye-Ubi jus ibi remedium – apho kukho ilungelo, kukho isisombululo.

Kodwa ke, noxa kunjalo, impendulo kumbuzo wombangi: ‘Ingaba ndinalo ilungelo?’ linyathelo nje lokuqala lokusekwa kweenkqubo zomthetho. Eminye imibuzo ekufanele iphendulwe yile:

  • Yeyiphi inkundla yamatyala emakuyiwe kuyo? Okukwabalulekileyo kulo mba Ligunya Lezemali lokusebenza kwiinkundla ezahlukeneyo, nezagqityelwa ukuhlonyelwa/ukulumgiswa ngo-I Juni 2014. Funda ngakumbi ngemithetho yezemali yazo zombini Iinkundla Zezithili kunye Neenkundla Zemimandla.
  • Kufuneka zithathe eyiphi indlela iinkqubo?
  • Loluphi uncedo olunokufunwa?
  • Ngawaphi amaxwebhu amawafunwe?
  • Zeziphi izaziso emazinikwe kwelinye iqela?
  • Bobuphi ubungqina omabuveliswe enkundleni yamatyala?
  • Yeyiphi inkqubo emayilandelewe enkundleni yamatyala?
  • Yintoni emayenziwe ukunyanzelisa nesiphi na isigqibo esinokuthathwa yinkundla yamatyala?
  • Yeyiphi inkundla yamatyala emakubhenelwe kuyo xa isigwebo isesingathanekiyo?

 Umphezulu Wephepha

 

5. Zeziphi iindidi ezahlukileyo zamabango okoniwa kwaye zivavanywa njani? 

 

Ukuba ufumene ukonzakala, ilahleko okanye umonakalo ngenxa yesenzo somnye umntu okanye ukungenzi nto, ungafaka ibango lomonakalo okanye lwembuyekezo kuloo mntu xa unokubonisa ubungqina:

  • Bokuba wophuleizigqibo zekontraki, okanye
  • Wenze okungamkelekanga entlalweni (delict) okufana nokwenzakalisa okanye ukwenyelisa
  • Abantu abasaxhomekekileyo bangafaka ibango lokulahlekelwa yinkxaso yemali
  • Umabi wamafa, osebenza endaweni yempahla zomfi, angabanga umonakalo wentlungu nokungcungcutheka okwenziwe kumfi ukuba ngaba iinkqubo besezimiselwe nguye.
  • Iindleko zomngcwabo zingabangwa.
  • Iindleko Zonyango nezesibhedlele phambi kokufa, zingabangwa.

Ulwaphulo lwesivumelwano – umonakalo wokwaphulwa kwesivumelwano, esifana nokuthenga nokuthengisa, unikwa ngokomthetho wokuba, nangona ngentlawulo, umntu owoniweyo makabekwe kwizinga elinye lezemali abeya kuba kulo xa ikontraki ingenziwanga kakuhle, nokuba okanye akukho ngokolwaphulo lwezigqibo oluxhalabisayo ukuxhasa ukuyekiswa kwekontraki.Umonakalo onokubuyekezwa kwisenzo yilahleko yemali (damnum emergens) nenzuzo yemali (lucrum cessans) engenziwanga.Bona icandelo lethu Lomthetho wekontraki ukuze ufumane iinkcukacha ezingaphaya.

Ukwenzakala– gabalala, umonakalo wokwenzakala ovela ngaphandle kwe-delict (ukoniwa ngokwasentlalweni/civil wrong) ubonisa umahluko phakathi kwemeko yesimo semali esikhoyo ngoku sommangali kunye nesimo angeyekuso xa idelict ibingenzekanga.Umonakalo uquka imbuyekezo yentlungu nokungabi nako ukuzinceda.Jonga icandelo lethu Lomthetho Wokoniwa komntu/Personal Injury lawukufumana iinkcukacha ezingaphaya.

Ukwenyeliswa– kwimeko apho igama lommangali lithe lonyeliswa khona intlawulo iyabhatalwa ngenxa yesithuko, ukohluthwa kwesidima kunye nokuviswa intlungu.Bona icandelo lethu Lomthetho Wokonyeliswa ukuze ufumane ezinye iinkcukacha.

Ukonakaliswa kwempahla–apho kuthe impahla yakho yonakaliswa khona ngokungekho mthethweni okanye yatshatyalaliswa, umonakalo owenzeke kuwe ungajongwa ngesiseko selahleko kwixabiso sendlu yakho ngexesha eyonakaliswa ngalo.Iindleko zokulungisa ingalinyathelo elifanelekileyo lokubuyekeza ngokufanayo macala xa kukho imfuneko yoko kwaye kulungile, xa ingedluli ngaphezu kweendleko zokubuyisela naxa inokubuyisela indawo kwisimo sayo sangaphambili. Nangona usenokufaka ibango lembuyiselo yelahleko nokusebenzisa inzala, ilahleko mayingabi ngaphaya–mayibe kumbono womntu oqoqayo-kwaye kufuneka uthathe amanyathelo engqiqo okuyinciphisa.

Umonakalo emva kokufa – yinto enokwenzeka ukuseka izenzo zomthetho ezine ezohlukeneyo zomonakalo owenzeke kwingozi ebulalayo:

Omnye umonakalo wokoniwa komhlali:

Ukuhlaselwa/Ukonyeliswa kwesidima – (ngokuphikisana nokubekeka kwegama okanye isimo sakho kakubi, nto leyo esisithuko) zikholisa ukubalelwa kwisiseko esinye njengokwenyelisa.

Ukrexezo– umonakalo usekwe kuhlaselo lwesidima nomtshato wommangali, nto leyo eyenza ukuba kuthathelwe ingqalelo iimeko ezimandundu nezithomalalisayo.NgoSeptemba 2014 Inkundla Ephakamileyo Yezibheno yawuphelisa lo mthetho iwubiza ‘njengowakudala’ nokuba ikhumbuza ngexesha apho indoda ‘yayinomdla weemfanelo’ emfazini wakhe–inkundla yamatyala yaychaza ukuba ‘xa amaqabane/abalingane belahle ukuzibophelela ngokulunga, umtshato awuyi kuphumelela kwaye isohlwayo esinikwa umntu wesithathu singangakutshintshi oko’.

Ukubanjwa nokuvalelwa ngokungafanekanga.Lo mthetho mnye uyasebenza kwiimeko ezibandakanya ukutshutshiswa okukhohlakeleyo, ukubanjwa nokuvalelwa ngokungafanelekanga.

Ukungenelela okungekho mthethweni ngeshishini okanye urhwebo – umonakalo kufanele ubuyisele ummangali kwisimo sakhe sangaphambili.

Ulwaphulo lomthetho welungelo lombhali elilelakhe lokushicilelaNgokomthetho Welungelo lombhali lokushicilela elilelakhe, imithetho ekhethekileyo ilawula umonakalo emva kolwaphulo komthetho welungelo lombhali lokushicilela.

Ulwaphulo lomthetho welungelo lombhali lokushicilela – inzuzo eyenziwe ngumtyholwa ingabangwa. (bonaUmthetho Wokushicilela ilungelo lakho)

Umphezulu Wephepha

 

6. Igqwetha lam laliphumelela ityala lam, kubandakanya neendleko. Kungoku nje lindithumele ityala.

Kusebenza njani oku? 

 

Kukho iindidi ezi-2 zeendleko:

Iindleko zenkqubo yetyalaeziziindleko ezenzeke ekuqhutyweni kwetyala /part-and-party costs.Ngokwesiqhelo ziindleko ezibizwa ngokuba zii-part-and-party costs kuphela, apho izinga leendleko zentlawulo ezibekwe phantsi  kwityala elisemthethweni, zinikwa ummangali ophumeleleyo: ngamanye amazwi ummangali ophumeleleyo unikwa/ubuyiselwa iindleko ezifana nentlawulo yegqwetha ngokuthatha imiyalelo yokumangala, ukubhala iisamani, impendulo kwisicelo sommangalelwa, isicelo sezinye iinkcukacha, ukulungiselela ityala nokuya enkundleni yamatyala. Izihlomela zamva nje zeendleko ziqalise ukusebenza ngo-24 Februwari 2015.

Iindleko Zegqwetha nezommangali eziziindleko ze-party-and-party ekufanele ukuba igqwetha lizibize kumxumi walo ngeenkonzo elizinikayo nokuba iziphumo zetyala zithini na. Ezi zibandakanya iindleko ezenzeke phambi kokuqaliswa kweenkquboyetyala.Ngoko ke intlawulo yezimvo zegqwetha phambi kwetyala aziyonxalenye yeendleko ezibizwa ngokuba yi-party-and-party costs.

Khumbula kodwa ke ukuba izinga elisemthethweni leendleko lisebenza kuphela xa kungakhange kubekho sivumelwano phakathi kwakho negqwetha lakho zokuba kuza kubizwa intlawulo ephezulu.

Umphezulu Wephepha

 

7. Misebenzi mini eyenziwa ligqwetha imihla ngemihla? 

 

Igqwetha linonxibelelwano olungqalileyo nomxumi kwaye lenza umsebenzi woshishino, ofana:

  • Nokuthenga nokuthengisa umhlaba/izindlu
  • Ukubhalisa amatyala emali-mboleko yokuthenga izindlu/imihlaba
  • Ukubhalwa kwemiyolelo neekontraki
  • Ukubhaliswa kweenkampani
  • Ukugqityezelwa kwemihlaba
  • Izicelo zeelayisensi neemvume
  • Ukulungiselela nokuqhuba amatyala enkundleni yamatyala

Nalu uludwe Lweenkundla Eziphakamileyo Zikazwelonkekunye noludwe Lweenkundla Zoomantyi

Umphezulu Wephepha

 

8. Umntu ukulungela njani ukusebenza njengegqwetha eMzantsi Afrika? 

 

Iimfuno zokwamkelwa Iimfuno zokwamkelwa kwamagqwetha emzantsi Afrika zimiselwe Ngumthetho Wamagqwetha, Umthetho 53 ka-1979kwanezikhokhelo ezimiselwe Ngokomthetho.Ezona mfuno zifanelekileyo zezi zilandelayo:

Ukufaneleka komntu-umntu makathathwe njengolungele nofanelekileyo Yisosayethi Yomthetho kunye Nenkundla Ephakamileyo phambi kokuba abe nokwamkelwa njengegqwetha.

Izifundo/Academic Qualifications-izifundo ekuphela kwazo ezamkelekileyo zokuvunywa ebugqwetheni kungoku nje yi-LLB degree (ubude bexesha lezifundo ezingekho ngaphantsi kweminyaka emi-4) ezifunyanwa eyunivesithi kwiRiphabliki.Ukusukela ngo-2015, abafundi abanwenela ukufunda umthetho KwiYunivesithi yase-Wits, kuya kufuneka bagqibe izifundo ezithatha iminyaka emithathu ze-BA Yomthetho/BA Law degree okanye i- BCom Yomthetho/BCom Law phambi kokubhalisela izifundo ezithatha iminyaka emibini zenkqubo yeLLB/LLB programme –ezinye iiyunivesithi zingalandela. Apha luludwelwamaziko ezomthetho eyunivesithi.

Uviwo Lokwamkelwa Kwamagqwetha –kufuneka lugqitywe ngempumelelo phambi kokwamkelwa.

Iinkonzo ezibizwa ngokuba yi-Service under Articles of Clerkship okanye Iikontraki Zeenkonzo/Service Contract

Amava omthetho afanelekileyo-amalungiselelo enziwe okuba umntu afake isicelo sokuxolelwa kwinkonzo phantsi kwekontrakthi ukuba ugqibe iminyaka emihlanu emsebenzini ‘amava afanelekileyo’

Ukwenza umsebenzi onyanzelekileyo kuqeqesho lezomthetho-umntu makaye kuqeqesho lobuso ngobuso lwezomthetho, olwamkelekileyo Kwisosayethi Yomthetho emzantsi Afrika.

Ulawulo lwenkqubo olunyanzelekileyo/Mandatory practise management- isifundo sokuziqeqesha kulawulo lunyanzelekile kuwo onke amagqwetha aza kunikwa Isiqinisekiso sokuqala seFidelity Fund/Fidelity Fund Certificate, ukusukela ngo-14 Agasti 2009.

Ewe, umntu, akaze ‘abemdala kakhulu’ ukufunda okanye ukusebenza ngezomthetho –ukuzikhuthaza funda ngakumbi ngoCornelia Leonard, okumagqwetha ii-Leonard Attorneys eGoli, owavula ishishini lakhe lezomthetho ngo-2014 eneminyaka engama-66, no-Nelson Mandela owafumana isidanga sakhe se-LLB ngo1989 eneminyaka engama-69. Ukufumana ezinye iinkcukacha nxibelelana Nombutho Wezomthetho eMzantsi Afrika/Law Society of South Africa

Umphezulu Wephepha

 

9. Yintoni imisebenzi KaGunyaziwe Wokungqinela Amaxwebhu Nengxelo Efungelweyo /

iNotari neyeKhonveyensa? 

 

INotari ligqwetha, elithe emva kokuphumelela iimviwo ezifunekayo, lamkelwa Yinkundla Yamatyala Ephakamileyo njengenotari.Yinotari kuphela enelungelo lokwenza ikontrakthi yaphambi kokutshata, ukuyiqinisekisa nokuyivavanya, iikontraki ezenza ukukhonza, ingqesho (yerenti) yexesha elide kunye nengqesho yamalungelo ezezimbiwa.

Inotariikwaqinisekisa amaxwebhu athile asemthethweni.Itayitile nganye epasiswe phambi kokuba inotari phambi kwesivumelwano somnqophiso inesihlomelo esikhethekileyo esincanyathiselweyo kuyo, kwaye kufuneka kugcinwe ikophi yinotari ngegunya layo (njengoxwebhu olukhethekileyo) ekufuneka yalathwe kwisalathiso,ibotshelelwe amaxesha ngamaxesha, ze igcinwe kwindawo ekhuselekileyo.

I- Conveyancerligqwetha, elithe lakuphumelela iimviwo ezifunekayo ngomthetho, ngokusebenza nangenkqubo yokunikela amaxwebhu omthetho NgokoMthetho Wamagqwetha ka-1979, kwaye abe wamkelwe Yinkundla Ephakamileyo njengekhonveyensa yemihlaba ezinzileyo.

Ii-Conveyancer zenza imisebenzi yokugqithisa iibhondi zemortgage (phakathi kwezinye izinto) ze bazifake kumaxwebhu kwi-rejistri yee-deeds/deeds registry (jonga Umthetho Wokubhaliswa Kwezigqibo Zomthetho Wezivumelwano/Registry Act), apho iba ngumba wokubhaliswa kwirekhodi kawonkewonke.Ukuba ligqwetha eliyi Khonveyensa ngomnye wemisebenzi okwisimo esikwizinga eliphezulu kwaye Ngokwesosayethi Yomthetho Yomzantsi Afrika kukho iikhonveyensa ezingama-5001.

 

Umphezulu Wephepha

 

10. Asebenza njani amalungu omthetho angundoqo ahlelwe eMzantsi Afrika? 

 

Umthetho Kazwelonke, ngamanye amaxesha obizwa njengomthetho kawonkewonke unebhodi yomthetho elawula ulwalamano phakathi kwamazwe ngexesha loxolo, lemfazwe nangexesha eliphakathi.

Ungquzulwano Lwemithetholubizwa njengomthetho wabucala kazwelonke ujongenenengxaki yokukhethaukuba yeyiphi inkqubo yomthetho efanele isetyenziswe kwingxwabangxwaba ebandakanya iimpawu zangaphandle nalapho iinkqubo ezimbini okanye ngaphezulu zingathi zibandakanyeke.

Umthetho Welizwe ngamanye amaxesha obizwa ngokuba ‘ngumthetho womhlaba’kwaye ubhekisa kumbutho wolawulo lwemithetho enyanzeliswa phakathi kwemida.

Umthetho Wenkqubo uqulathe umbutho wemithetho elawula ukunyanzeliswa/ukusetyenziswa kwemithetho yamalungelo onikwe phantsi komthetho osisiseko, kwaye uqulathe umthetho wenkqubo karhulumente nowolwaphulo-mthetho, ze umthetho wobungqina, obeka indlela yobungqina kwimiba, kwityala lobukrelemnqa okanye kwityala lasentlalweni, ekufanele iqinisekiswe ngayo.

Umthetho Osisisekoubandakanya loo masetyana omthetho aphathelele ekudalweni, ekusetyenzisweni nasekutshatyalalisweni kwamalungelo neentlawulo, kwaye anokwahlulwa-hlulwa phakathi komthetho woluntu nowabucala.

1. Umthetho Woluntu ulawulaulwalamanophakathi kwelizwe kunye nabahlali, kwaye uqulathe umthetho wolawulo, umthetho womgaqo-siseko, umthetho wolwaphulo-mthetho kunye nomthetho werhafu.

2. Umthetho Wabucala ujongene nabo baxhomekeke kurhulumente kunye nolwalamano lwabo omnye komnye.Ubandakanya umthetho wabantu nowosapho, umthetho woshishino (oqulathe umthetho weenkampani, umthetho weendlela zothethathethwano kunye nomthetho wokungabinakuhlawula amatyala), umthetho womhlaba, umthetho

Umthetho womhlaba, umthethowolandelelwano/welifa kunye nomthetho wezivumelwano (ongohlulwa ngokomthetho weembophelelo, umthetho we-delict kunye nomthetho wokuzityebisa ngokungafanelekanga.

Olu hlelo lungasentla alubandakanyi onke amasebe omthetho, ukongeza ekubeni khona kokungenana okuthile kwamasebenomthetho

Umphezulu Wephepha

 

11. Zimile njani iinkundla zamatyala eMzantsi Afrika? 

 

Iinkundla eziqhelekileyo zezi:

  • Inkundla Yomgaqo-Siseko:Isihlomelo Somgaqo-Siseko se-17 Ukulungiswa Komgaqo-Siseko kubethelela Inkundla Yomgaqo-Siseko njengeyona nkundla iphakamileyo elizweni. Umthetho ukwabhala ngokutsha Icandelo 167 Lomgaqo-Siseko ukuxela ukuba Inkunda Yomgaqo-Siseko inegunya kuyo yonke imiba yomgaqo-siseko nakowuphi umba enokunika kuyo ilungelo lokubhena.
  • Inkundla Ephakamileyo Yezibheno
  • Iinkundla Eziphakamileyo
  • Iinkundla Zommandla NezikaMantyi
  • Iinkundla Zamabango Amancinci
  • Iinkundla Zabahlali kunye neenkundla Zeenkosi Nezibonda
  • Inkundla Yezibheno Zabasebenzi:ijongene nezibheno ezivela Kwinkundla Yezibheno. Isihlomelo se-17 Somgaqo-Siseko senza ukuba kungabisabikho ndlela yokubhena esuka Kwinkundla Yezibheno Zabasebenzi eya Kwinkundla Ephakamileyo Yezibheno- endaweni yoko amaqela makaguqukele Kwinkundla Yomgaqo-Siseko enengqiqo yokuba ingayinika na imvume yokubhena.
  • Inkundla Yabasebenzi:ijongana neempikiswano eziphantsi Komthetho Wemibutho Yabasebenzi
  • Inkundla Yamabango Omhlaba:ijongene namabango omhlaba nemiba yokuqeshisa ngomhlaba
  • Iinkundla Zeentsapho:zijongene nemiba yeentsapho, njengokuqhawulwa komtshato (ziwela phantsi Kwenkundla Yommandla)
  • Iinkundla Zenkxaso
  • Iinkundla Zolutsha
  • Iinkundla Zabantwana
  • Iinkundla Zerhafu
  • Iinkundla /Iibhodi Zezamanzi
  • Iinkundla Zolingano
  • Iinkundla Zeenkosi Nezibonda

Iinkundla ezijongene namatyala akhethekileyo:

Iindidi zeenkundla eMzantsi Afrika kunye nenkqubo yokubhena okanye ukuvavanywa:

 

Umphezulu Wephepha

 

12. Yintoni umsebenzi Wesosayethi Yamagqwetha? 

 

ISosayethi Yomthetho YoMzantsi Afrika liqumrhu elilawula umsebenzi wamagqwetha eMzantsi Afrika . Lihlanganisa amalungu ayo amathandathu asisiseko-Umbutho Wamagqwetha Amnyama , Umbutho Womthetho WeKapa, Umbutho Womthetho waKwazulu-Natal, Umbutho Womthetho Wamaphonda Asemntla, Umbutho Womthetho waseFreyistathi, kunyeNombutho Wamagqwetha Akhululekileyo .

Ngokomthetho Wamagqwetha, ka-1979 , amagqwetha eMzantsi Afrika ayabhaliswa kuludwe lwamagqwetha asebenzayo kumthetho siseko, kumbutho wamagqwetha ephondo apho umsebenzi wawo ukhoyo.

Kumagqwetha ase:

Gauteng, Kwiphondo Lomntla-Ntshona Koloni, eMpumalanga naseLimpopo

Isosayethi Yomthetho Yamaphondo Asemntla

Ifowuni (012) 338 5800

www.northernlaw.co.za

Free State

Isosayethi Yomthetho YaseFreyistathi

Ifowuni (051) 447 3237

www.fs-law.co.za

Kwazulu-Natal

Isosayethi Yomthetho YaKwazulu-Natal

Ifowuni (033) 3451394

www.lawsoc.co.za

Ntshona, iMpuma noMntla Kapa

Isosayethi Yomthetho weKapa

Ifowuni (021) 443 7600

www.capelawsoc.law.za

NgokoMthetho Wamagqwetha, 1979 , Amagwetha awela phantsi kolawulo nololuleko lwegunya lwesosayethi yomthetho wamaphondo apho asebenza khona. Umthetho weesosayethi zomthetho akumdla woluntu lonke kwaye akulungele ukuphanda izikhalazo ezifakwe kubo ngokuthembeka neziwela phantsi kwegunya labo.

Umphezulu Wephepha

 

13. Ungandikhusela njani Umthetho omtsha Wokuthintela Ukudlakazeliswa ukuba ndiyadlakazeliswa? 

 

Umthetho Wokuthintela Ukudlakazeliswa waqalisa ukusebenza ngo-27 Epreli 2013, nto leyo ekuvumela ukuba ufune umyelelo wokhuselo kuye nabanina okudlakazelisa ngokuthe ngqo okanye ngeendlela zonxibelelwano ze-elektriki.

Ngaphambili wawunokufumana umyalelo wokhuseleko kwinkundla kamantyi ukukukhusela kulowo ukudlakazelisayo kuphela xa benikulwalamano lwasekhaya (jonga Umthetho Wodlakazeliso Lwasekhaya, 1998) ze usetyenziswe ebantwini ababengejene, betshatile, behlalisana okanye abanokuhlalisana okanye abangumzali nomntwana.Kwimeko yokudlakazeliswa ngomnye umntu kungafuneka ufake isicelo Kwinkundla Ephakamileyo ukufumana umyalelo obanqandayo ekukudlakazeliseni.

Ukuba ukholelwa ukuba uyadlakazeliswa ungenza ingxelo efungelweyo kwinkundla kamantyi ze ufumane umyalelo wethutyana wokukukhusela.Isaziso sesicelo sokhuselo lokugqibela masinikelwe kulowo uphendulayo/utyholwayo kumphenduli kwaye masibonise ukuba umoni uza kuvela nini enkundleni yamatyala.

Ukuba uziva ngathi uthukiwe ungafunda ngakumbiapha Ngomthetho Wokudlakazeliswa.

Umphezulu Wephepha

 

14. Kufanele ndenze ntoni ukuba ndiyadlakazeluswa okanye ndoyagrogriswa ngetyala endingenalo? 

 

Ngelishwa oku kufunyanwa ngabantu abaninzi ngee-akhawunti ezindala okanye ezingekhoyo, amatyala amadala kamasipala.Uninzi lwemiba enxulumene nendlela aqokolelwa ngayo amatyala ngamaziko asebenza ngefowuni (call centres)asetyenziswa ngamagqwetha.

La abandakanya:

  • Ukugrogrisa ngokuxela ityala elibhalisiweyo kwiarhente yamatyala/credit bureau engekho mthethweni Ngokomthetho Welizwe Wamatyala 34 ka-2005.
  • Ukugrogrisa ngokuthatha inyathelo lasemthethweni okanye ukunika isaphulelo xa uvuma ukuhlawula ityala.
  • Ukugrogriswa ngemiyalezo yee-sms, ifowuni ezingenambeko ezivela kubasebenzi abangabaqokoleli kunye neeleta ezininzi zomyalelo.
  • Ukufuna ukuba abatyalayo mabanike ubungqina bokuba abasityali isixa esibizwayo, ngeli xa umthwalo ukumtyalwa wokuba abonise ubungqina bebango lakhe. Ukungabinakunika abaxumi ingxelo yetyala xa bufuneka.
  • Ukuba igqwetha liyazingisa ukusingisela kwiileta ezininzi zomyalelo (ii-sms) kulowo utyalayo, lisazi ngokupheleleyo ukuba ukruthakruthwano lomthetho luphakanyisiwe ngokuphathelele etyaleni, ukuziphatha okulolu hlobo kwegqwetha kuyafana nodlakazeliso, kungoko kuthathwa njengendlela yokuziphathaengahambelaniyo nomsebenzi kwicala legqwetha.
  • Isikhalazo singafakwa kumbutho wamagqwetha ukuze kwenziwe uphando lokoluleka xa igqwetha liqhubeleka nesenzo sokudlakazelisa.

Ngokwalo mba Umphathi Wesosayethi Yamagqwetha Amaphondo Omntla usandula kuchaza oku kulandelayo:

Umphezulu Wephepha

 

15. Ingaba imali egcinwe Kwingxowa-mali/Itrasti Yamagqwetha inika inzala? 

 

  • Xa ubeka imali egqwetheni, nokuba yintlawulo eyidiphozithi yeendleko zomthetho okanye idiphozithi okanye ixabiso elipheleleyo lokuthenga umhlaba/umzi – igqwetha lakho malifake imali yakho kwiakhawunti yetrasti. Inzala efunyenweyo ngemali eyongeziweyo R213 millionKwingxowa-mali Yegqwetha ebizwa ngokuba Yi-Fidelity Fund ngo 2011.
  • Ingxowa-mali sisixa esisekwe saze salawulwa Ngumthetho Wamagqwetha kwaye sinika i-inshorensi yokhusela lomsebenzi emagqwetheni xa ejongene namabango obusela. Iilahleko ezifana nale ezikhuselwa yingxowa-mali zibandakanya ukwebiwa kwemali ehlawuliweyo de kubhaliswe ipropati engenakushukunyiswa, ukwebiwa kwemali yabangasekhoyo okanye yamashishini atshonileyo, nokwebiwa kwentlawulo zokuvala ityalakumabango abantu okulimala. Ngale ndlela ingxowa-mali inika izinga elisisiseko ekukhuselekeni ngendlela engenanzala, Ingxowa-mali Yeinshorensi Yamagqwetha.
  • Ukhuselo olunikwa Yingxowa-mali lukhuthaza ukuba uluntu lusebenzise iinkonzo ezinikwa ngabasebenzi bomthetho ngokuzithemba.
  • Ngokomthetho Wamagqwetha, ngaphandle kokuba unike igqwetha umyalelo otsolileyo wokutyala imali yakho ukulungiselela inzuzo yakho ngokwecandelo 78(2A) Lomthetho, akukho sinyanzelo sokuba ubhatalwe inzala efunyenweyo yokutyhila oku kuwe. Qiniseka ukuba wena klayenti, unolwazi lwazo zonke iimeko onokukhetha kuzo ezikhoyo emthethweni, ukwenzela ukuba ube nokuthatha isigqibo esisekwe kulwazi.
  • Ngeli xa Ingxowa-mali Yamagqwetha Ye-inshorensi Yokukhusela Amagqwetha/Attorneys Insurance Indemnity Fund (AIIF) inika umlinganiselo osisiseko wokhuseleko lwomsebenzi, nje ukuba olu khuseleko lungagqibelelanga luncitshiswe okanye luphele, abalawuli/amaqabane kwifem yomthetho, ngabo abaphendulayo xa bebonke nangayiphi na ingxaki eyongezelelekileyo ngaphaya kokhuseleko olunikwa yi-AIIF. Oku kuneziphumo ezibi kakhulu kwishishini lomthetho kwaye amagqwetha angafunda ngaphezulu malunga nemfundo yokwengeza ukhuseleko/top-up coverapha.  Buza ukuba ingaba ifem yamagqwetha akho ine-Inshorensi Ye-PI efanelekileyo na.

 

 

 

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Umphezulu Wephepha