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Iziswe kuwe yi-www.lawyer.co.za – iwebhusayithi esimahla eyeyona ingundoqo emayelana namagqwetha kunye nomthetho eMzantsi Afrika namhlanje. Yenza uphando ngomthetho okanye ufumane iZiko loMthetho. Ungafunda isiqulatho esigcweleyo ngezantsi okanye uyifumane apha kwiwebhusayithi – qaphela: iza kuthatha malunga ne 1Mb yedatha yakho. Noxa kunjalo, sithemba ukuba uza kuyifumana ilufundo olunolwazi kwaye oluluncuthu mazangwa!

Intshayelelo

Kwixesha elingamashumi amabini eminyaka, ukusukela ngowe-1941 ukuya kowe-1961, uNelson Mandela ube lilungu lemanyano yamagcisa ezomthetho eMzantsi Afrika: umabhalane oqeqeshelwe ubugqwetha, umncedisi onobuchule, ezisebenzela kwaye ekwayinxalenye yabanye abasebenzi bezomthetho. Ngonyaka we-1939, eneminyaka engama-21 ubudala, xa wayesungula izifundo zakhe kwiDyunivesithi yaseDikeni (Fort Hare), wafika ngenqwelo yebambela uJongintaba ngowe-1964, ngaphezu nje kweminyaka engama-25 emva koko, wafika kwisiqithi saseRobben Island ngenqwelo moya yamajoni.

Eli libali likaNelson Mandela, Igqwetha lomthetho ngokusebenza kunye negcisa lokuvusa inguquko!

UMandela Oligqwetha

UNelson Mandela wazalwa ngomhla we-18 kwinyanga yeKhala (Julayi) ngowe-1918 eMvezo, ilali encinci kudonga lomlambo uMbashe, kwisithili saseMthatha, kwaye wachitha ubuninzi beminyaka yakhe yobuntwana eQunu. Usapho lukatata wakhe belulusapho lwasebukhosini kwaye lungamalungu ebhunga leKumkani yabaThembu. Benze umlandu womlibo wabo kuKumkani Ngubengcuka (c1790-1830) owaye wadibanisa ubukumkani babaThembu, obabuyingqokelela ebhetyebhetye yeenkosi. UNelson Mandela wayenemiyaka elithoba ngexesha utata wakhe, uHenry Gadla esweleka. Ngokufutshane phambi kokusweleka kukatata wakhe utata wakhe waye wacwangcisa ukuba uMandela owayesulula ahlale neNkosi yabaThembu uJongintaba, ibambela laseBukhosini.

 

  rondavel 300 220   jongintaba 300 220  
  Uronti eThe Great Place   Umgadi kaMandela  
  eMqhekezweni apho   uJongintaba Dalindyebo,  
  wayehlala khona uMandela   owathi wamkhulisa,  
  esengumntwana,   Emva kokusweleka  
   ephantsi kwelisao lika Jongintaba   kukatata wakhe  
         

Xa eneminyaka eli-16 waye waya entabeni eyokweluka ukuba abe yindoda. Ngokukhawuleza emva koko waye wathathwa ngenqwelo yebambela (uJongintaba) wasiwa kwaNokholeji eClarkebury, eyathi yasungulwa ziiMishinari zamaWesile ngowe-1825 xeshikweni uKumkani wabaThembu uNgubengcuka, ebanika umhlaba. Apho uMandela wabonisa ithemba lokubangumfundi, waqoshelisa isiqinisekiso semfundo yakho yamabanga aphantsi ngexesha elifutshane eliyiminyaka emibini.

Ngonyaka wakhe wokugqibela ehlala kwindawo yabafundi esikolweni eHealtdown ngowe-1938, kwaye ngowe-1939, eneminyaka engama-21 ubudala waba ngumfundi wemfundo enomsila kwiDyunivesithi yaseDikeni, eyathi yasungulwa ziiMishinari zaseMpuma Koloni ngowe-1916 ngelo xesha yayinabafundi abamalunga ne- 150. Wabhalisela isidanga se-BA, efunda ezi zifundo: isiNgesi, Umthetho ngoLuntu (i-Anthropology) kunye neNative Administration, ezaziya kuthi zimnike ithuba lokuqashwa kwiSebe leNative Affairs ePitoli. Ngalo mihla kwakuyinjongo engaphumelela kwaye uMandela wazibona eza kukufanela ukuba yitoliki yolwimi lwesiXhosa nelesiNgesi, mhlawumbe esebenza noMantyi. Oyena mhlobo wakhe osenyongweni eDikeni yayinguKaizer Matanzima owayengumzala kaMandela kwaye eligqwetha elikhasayo lophuhliso olwahlukeneyo. Waye wathweswa isidanga seBA kuMthetho wamaRoma kwiDyunivesithi yaseDikeni waze waqala uqeqesho lwezomthetho ngowe-1940 kwaye ngowe-1944 waphumelela isipho se-Cape Law Society ngeziphumo zakhe zokwamkelwa kuvavanyo lwe-Attorney’s Admission, noxa wayengasoze asebenze njengegqwetha.

 

Ukuya ekupheleni konyaka we-1940, unyaka awafika ngawo uMandela, waye wabandakanyeka kwimpikiswano nabafundi-  wayechongelwe kwiBhunga laBafundi kodwa ngenxa yemizabalazo yenkcaso wala ukuthatha esi sikhundla. Ngenxa yoku waye wagxothwa kabuhlungu nto leyo eyathi yakhwankqisa uJongintaba, owathi wagxininisa ukuba ufanele abuyele eDikeni kunyaka omtsha. Ngaphezulu uJongintaba wayeceba umtshato ocwangcisiweyo kaNelson nobhuti wakhe uJustin ngenxa yoko aba babini bathatha isigqibo sokuba babaleke – bathi beba iinkomo ezimbini zikaJongintaba, baze bazithengisa kumthengi waselalini. Ekugqibeleni bakhwela simahla kwinqwelo yegqwetha lalo ndawo elalisingise eGoli bafika eGoli ngomhla we-16 kuTshazimpuzi (Epreli) ngowe-1941.

 

  cousin KD Matanzima 300 220   wife evelyn 300 220  
  UNelson Mandela   Inkosikazi yokuqala kaMandela, uEvelyn  
  Nomzala wakhe   Kunye noonyana babo ababini u  
  uKD Matanzima   Thembi & Makgatho – ekupheleni  
       kweminyaka yowe- 1940's  
         

Omnye wabantu bokuqala awathi uNelson nobhuti wakhe uJustin bazibika kuye yabangu Gq. Xuma, owayesanda konyulelwa kwisikhundla sobuMongameli weANC kwaye esisihlobo sosapho. Wathi yena wabathumela kuMnumzana Wellbeloved owathi naye wabathumela emsebenzini eCrown Mines. UJustin wanikwa umsebenzi wokuba ngumqeqeshwa ngeli xesha uMandela wasebenza njengonogada ebusuku. Wanikwa umnqwazi osisangqa, igqudu lasebusuku kunye nempempe. Kwaye kwafika enye incwadi yocingo evela kuJongintaba ebongoza induna ukuba ibathumele emva ekhaya aba bafana. UMandela wayenompu omdala kwikasi yakhe yeempahla leyo eyathi yasetshwa ngunogada xeshikweni beza kuhamba. Ngenxa yoko wathi wabekwa ityala, wavela kwinkundla yamatyala kwaye wadliwa umrhumo omncinci.

UMandela waye wahamba wayokuhlala nomzala wakhe uGarlick Mbekene, waye waxelela isihlobo sakhe ngomnqweno wakhe wokufuna ukuba ligqwetha. UMbekene wathi wamazisa kuWalter Sisulu naye owayeyinzalelwane yaseThembuland, owayeyinkokheli yeANC kwisebe elalisebenza kulo ndawo, engumkhokheli wekwayala, kwaye elilungu lemanyano yamatyendyana asuka ndawonye amaXhosa. USisulu yena wayengumthengisi wezindlu, kodwa kungeyiyo indlela eqondwa ngayo kule mihla. I-Alexandra yayisungulwe njengelokishi yabantu abaMnyama ngowe-1912 yaze yakhutshwa kwizakhiwo ze-1913 Land Act, eyathi yathintela abantu abaMnyama ukuba bathenge okanye bathengise izakhiwo kwiindawo zabaMhlophe. Indoda engusomashishini enguMjamani yayinikeza ngemali mboleko kunye nefemu yomthetho iWitkin, Sidelsky kunye no-Eidelman babhalisa izindlu zemali mboleko ukuze bakhusele imbali mboleko. USisulu wayezingela abaxhasi ukuze afumane ikomishini. UMandela waxelela uSisulu ukuba wayefuna ukufunda ubugqwetha, waze uSisulu wamazisa kwigqwetha uLazar Sidelsky, owavuma ukumthatha njengomabhalane ongumqeqeshwa kwezomthetho, (namhlanje obizwa ukuba ligqwetha elingumqeqeshwa) xeshikweni egqibezela isidanga sakhe ngemfundo yokukhoresponda.

 

  dr alfred xuma 300 220   walter sisulu 300 220  
  Dr. Alfred Xuma   Walter Sisulu  
         

Kwakungumnqa ke ngezo ntsuku ukuthi ifemu yomthetho yabaMhlophe inikeze ithuba lokuqeqeshwa kubantu abaMnyama – kuzwelonke kwakukho nje kuphela amagqwetha agqwesileyo ali-18 ngowe-1946 ngexesha apho yayingumyinge weephesenti ezimbini (2%) woluntu oluMnyama eGoli olwalunokubanga imeko yobungcali. UMandela wabhalisela izifundo eUNISA, ezathi zahlawulelwa nguSisulu kwaye waqalisa ukusebenza noWitkin.

Umntu wokuqala oMnyama owathi wamkelwa njengegqwetha kwiNkundla yoMthetho eMzantsi Afrika yabanguAlfred Mangena (ngowe-14 kweyeKhala 1910) kwalandela uPixley ka Isaka Seme (ngowe-22 kweyoMnga 1910) kunye noGeorge Dixon Montsio ngowe-1911. Ngowe-1960 kwakukho amagqwetha aMnyama angama-60 eMzantsi Afrika kubo umyinge osisithathu wawuzinze eTranskei ngelo xesha. Amaziko okubhalisa kwi-Native Reserves ayenikezela ubuncinane ngamathuba amaninzi omsebenzi njengeGoli apho izithintelo zokuhlala ezidolophini zazilawulwa lucalucalulo olukhohlakeleyo. AbaMnyama ababenempumelelo, baqokelelana kwiziko elalingqonge iBhunga, indawo yomntu othile eMthatha kwaye yayinikezela ngamathuba ancumisayo ezimalini kumagqwetha amatsha aMnyama ngelo xesha abathi bazenzela amashishini abo. Amanye amaziko wokuqhuba ezomthetho kwabaMnyama ayeseGoli naseThekwini.

Phakathi kowe-1942 uMandela wayehlala mahala kwiinkampi zomgodi waze waphinda wahlala iinyanga ezimbalwa kwikhaya likaWalter Sisulu ellise 7372 Orlando West. Kulapha apho wadibana noEvelyn Mase, saze esi sibini satshata ngomhla we-5 kweyeDwarha ngowe-1944, emva ‘kobuhlobo obabukhawulezile’. UMandela wayeneminyaka engama-26 ubudala, kwaye yena uEvelyn eminyaka ingama-23 ubudala, kwakungekho mali yelobola nakudla na kakade kweendwendwe ezize emtshatweni. UThembekile wazalwa ngowama- 23 kweyoMdumba ngowe-1946. UEvelyn wayefumana iiponti ezili-18 ngenyanga ngomsebenzi wakhe wobongikazi saze esi sibini safudukela e 8115 Orlando West beqashile bebhatala imali eyi-17d 6d ngenyanga ngonyaka we-1947. Usapho lwakwaMandela lwafumana umntwana wesibini, intombazana egama linguMakaziwe. Wagula nje esazalwa kwaye zange abengcono, waze wasweleka emva kwenyanga ezilithoba, ngowe-1948. Unyana wesibini, uMakgatho wazalwa kweyeThupha ngowe-1950, kwaze ngowe-1954 kwazalwa intombi uMakaziwe, owathiywa ukunika imbeko kwintombi eyathi yasweleka ebusaneni kwiminyaka emihlanu eyadlulayo.

Ubomi bakhe njengomabhalane oqeqeshelwa ezoMthetho babunzima kakhulu kwaye imali imnqabele. Umvuzo awaqala ngawo wawuziiponti ezimbini ngenyanga wenyuka waya kwezisibhozo ngenyanga, ngenyanga yoMnga ngowe-1946. Wayenesuti enye awathi wayinikwa nguMnumzana Sidelsky eyafuna ukuba ahlale eyithunga eyixokomezela ukuze ibukeke idibene. Ngamanye amaxesha wayethi ahambe iimayile ezintlanu ukuya emsebenzini ukuze onge imali yebhasi aze abe nemali yokuthenga ukutya. Ngeminyaka yama-1940, indlela yokusebenza njengegqwetha, yayikukugqiba iminyaka emihlanu yoqeqesho kunye nokufezekisa uvavanyo loLwamkelo ebuGqwetheni le yindlela awathi uMandela wagqwesa ukuba abe ligqwetha.

 

 

  sidelsky bregman mandela   percy yutar 300 220  
  Abahlobo abadala –   Iintshaba ezindala -  
  kunye nosebenze naye   Nomtshutshisi  
  njengomabhalane oqeqeshelwa   was-Rivonia  
  ubugqwethau Nat Bregman   uPercy Yutar  
  & ne’Nqununu’ yakhe      
  yangaphambili uLazar Sidelsky      
         

Onmye owayesebanzela uSidelsky yayinguzakwabo umabhalane wezomthetho uNat Bregman, owayeyi-Marxist ekwaliqhula leqonga elalisithi ngamanye amaxesha livakale kunomathotholo aze emva kwexesha waqhuba esebenza kwifemu yakhe yomthetho. UMandela wamchaza lo mfo njengomhlobo wakhe wokuqala oMhlophe, owayehamba iintlanganiso naye kwaye emabela amaqebengwana ngexesha lesidlo sabo sasemini. Wafunda ngokuzimisela ebusuku kwaye ngowe-1943 wabuyela kwiDyunivesithi yaseDikeni ezokuthweswa isidanga seBA.

Ngowe-1943 uMandela kwakhona wabhalisa kwidyunivesithi yaseWits ukuze aqalise isidanga sakhe seBA kwezoMthetho – LLB, ngethemba lokuba aze abeligqwetha. Kwakuzizifundo zexesha elingagcwalanga kwaye yayinguye yedwa ngelo xesha umfundi oMnyama kwisebe lezoMthetho kwaye kwakungazange kubekho igqwetha eliMnyama eGoli. UDuma Nokwe wayeligqwetha lokuqala eliMnyama ukubizelwa kumvalo womthetho ngowe-1956. Kube lapho eDyunivesithi apho wadibana noJoe Slovo, Ruth First, Bram Fischer, George Bizos, J.N. Singh kunye noIsmail Meer, ukubala abambalwa kwabaninzi. NgeyoMnga ngowe-1946 uMandela wafaka isicelo semali mboleko kwi-Bantu Welfare Trust efuna iiponti ezingama-250 pounds, awathi uyifunela ukufunda ixesha eligcweleyo ukuze agqibezele iLLB yakhe. Waye wayifumana lemali mboleko, kuba ngokutsho kwakhe wayengumfundi ohluphekayo – wayefundela leLLB iminyaka emithandathu kwaye wayengaphumeleli unyaka wokugqibela amaxesha amathathu. NgeyoMnga ngowe-1949 wabhalela uMongameli weSebe lezoMthetho, uNjingalwazi Hahlo embongoza ukuba amnike ithuba lokugqibela ukuba achophele uvavanyo lwakhe lokugqibela awaye wangaluphumeleli. Kwintlanganiso ekhethekileyo ngomhla we-14 kweyoMnga ngowe-1949 UMongameli nabanye asebenza nabo abathandathu basikhaba isicelo sakhe kuba wayesele engaphumelelanga izifundo ezithathu zonyaka wakhe wokugqibela.

Ngowama-1952, uMandela wabhalisela kwakhona izifundo zeLLB eWits, kodwa zathi zarhoxiswa phakathi enyakeni ngenxa yokusilela ukuhlawula imali yokufunda. Noxa ngoku wayesebenzela uHyman Basner njengegqwetha, uMandela ngokubonakalayo wayengenayo imali yokubhatalela izifundo zakhe, kodwa ngeli xesha kubonakala ngathi idyunivesithi yayikulungele ukummamela ngovelwano. Xeshikweni inqununu, uHumphrey Raikes, wayecetyiswa ngumbali zimali mayelana nokurhoxiswa okungekafezekiswa, waphakamisa ukuba uMandela anikwe ithuba lokubonana noMgcini zincwadi, uGlyn Thomas, umntu owayenovelwano owayefanele ukunika icebiso elilungileyo noncedo. UMandela zange asamkele eso sicelo — ngelo xesha wayengene kakhulu kwimizabalazo echasene neenkqubo, kwaye wayeza kuthi ngokukhawuleza avule eyakhe ifemu yezomthetho ezakusebenza ngokubambisana noOliver Tambo.

 

 

  final year LLB Wits 1949 600 328  
  UMandela engumfundi kwiDyunivesithi yaseWits  
  apho wayefunda ngokungeso sigxina  
  Ukusuka ngowe-1943 - 1946 &  
   ngokusisigxina ngowe-1947 - 1948. uNjingalwazi Hahlo (ophakathi)  

 

Ngowe-1948, uDaniel Francois Malan wabanguMphathiswa weLizwe kwaye waqalisa ukubeka iyantlukwano enkulu. Umbhali weencwadi uJM Coetzee uyichaza iyantlukwano ngale ndlela ilandelayo: ‘Iyantlukwano yaye iyinkqubo yokunyanzelisa kokohlukana okusekelwe kubuhlanga okanye uluntu lohlanga oluthile, eyangeniswa ngokukhethekileyo, liqela labantu abazichongayo ukuze benze luqilima uloyiso lwezithanga ingakumbi ukwenza luqilima ukuphanga ubutyebi bendalo’. Eli qela likhethekileyo yayingabantu abaMhlophe (ababebizwa ngelo xesha ukuba ngamaYurophu). UMbhali wemidlalo yeqonga uAthol Fugard wabhala kanje: ‘Ngenxa yokuqinisekileyo, akukho ndawo ehlabathini namhlanje – kwaye ndiqinisekile ukuba inyaniseke njengamandulo – kwakhe kwakho uluntu apho izimvo ezongameleyo zopolitiko, ezincediswa kwaye ezikhuthazwa yinkolo eyongameleyo yobuKrestu, zathi zabonakala zikhokhelela amadoda namakhosikazi anengqiqo kwimpambano yoku ebhidisa ingqondo nedelela indlela yokuqiqa – eyona nto eyenza ikhwankqise kakhulu yimeko eyathi yasasazeka ngayo lempambano. Akukho ndawo apha ebomini boluntu kusukela kwezona ndawo zabucala okanye zikawonke-wonke, engazange iyichukumise’.

Oyena ‘mama’ womthetho weyantlukwano (njengoko kwakubhekiswa kuyo kanjalo yipalamente ngowe-1990) kwabanguMthetho woBhaliso lwaBantu wangowe-1950, owathi wahlela bonke abemi boMzanti Afrika ngobuhlanga. UMthetho weeNdawo ngaMaqela, nawo ngowe-1950 waqinisekisa apho iintlanga zinokuthi zihlale khona xeshikweni uMthetho woGunyaziso lwaBantu abaNtsundu we-1951 wayalela ukuyilwa kweendawo zabaNtsundu kuphela ubeka ngokwempumelelo iinkulungwane zabanntu abangeyingabo abaMhlophe kwimo yokuba abangabo abahlali kwilizwe labo lokuzalwa, wabenza izaphuli mthetho xa bethe bangabinazo ’iidompasi’. NgeyoKwindla ngowe-1963 uMnumzana H J Botha wathetha kwindlu yeNdibano ngolu hlobo malunga nomgaqo nkqubo wamaphandle. ‘’Njengokuba ootatomkhulu bethu abangasekhoyo bamaDatshi bakha iindonga eZeeland ukugcina uLwandle loMntla lukude kwilizwe lootata babo, namhlanje sakha iindonga zemvelo kuMzantsi Afrika wonke ukugcina kude inyambalala yabaMnyama’’ NgeyoKwindla ngowe-1963 uMnumzana C M Warren weQela Elibumbeneyo waxela intetho yomzala kaMandela, uKumkani Kaizer Matanzima kwiNdlu yeNdibano ngale ndlela: ‘Kum, uphuhliso olwahlukeneyo lufana nento ayiyo uMagna Carta kubantu baseBrithane. Ndinqwenela ukuqinisekisa ilizwe ukuba iinkokheli zaseTranskei zingabalelwa kwabo bangoongqondo ngqondo abangcono ehlabathini’.

 

  boxer   old fort  
  Mandela wazigcina omelele    Inqaba Endalo, apho uMandela   
  ngokuthi azilolonge njengomdlali    Wayevalelwe khona kabini   
  wamanqindi. Wenza ibango   ngowe-1950. Ngoku   
   lokuba uchulumancela   yinxalenye yesangqa se   
  ‘ubungcali balo mdlalo.’   Constitutional Hill  
         

Ngomhal we-18 kweyoMdumba ngowe-1953 uNobhala wezoBulungisa, uMnumzana AEM Jansen, wabhengeza ukuba yayiyingumgaqo nkqubo wexesha elide weSebe lezoBulungisa ukungenisa iyantlukwano epheleleyo kwiinkundla zeNdibano (Union), kwaye ngowe-1960 uMantyi oyiNtloko waseKapa wabhengeza ukuba onke amagumbi enkundla esixekweni aye afakwa iitafile ezohlukeneyo zamagqwetha ayengengabo abantu abaMhlophe. Njengegqwetha elalisebenza uMandela waba phantsi kobuhlanga nocalucalulo olwengezelelekileyo ngokuthi ephinda phindwa ebuzwa ‘ngekhadi lakhe ‘Lesazisi soBugqwetha’ okanye kube kuphicothwa isiqinisekiso sakhe sobugqwetha ngabanye ooMantyi – into leyo eyayinqabile ukwenzeka kogxa bakhe bomsebenzi abangabaMhlophe.

Ngowe-1951, emva kokugqiba uqeqesho eWitkin, uMandela waya kusebenzela ifemu yezoMthetho iTerreblanche ne Briggish apho wahlala malunga nonyaka omnye. Waze wazibandakanya nefemu kaHelman no Michel apho wahlala malunga neenyanga ezintathu. Ukuze akwazi ukwamkela imali eyaneleyo ajongane nosapho lwakhe uMandela waqalisa ukufundela uvavanyo lokwamkelwa njengegqwetha eliphumeleleyo apho wathi waziqoshelisa ezo zifundo ngempumelelo. Ngokwamaxwebhu agciniweyo kwiQumrhu le-Incorporated Law (yamandulo) laseTransvaal, uMandela waye wamkelwa kuluhlu lwamagqwetha ngeyoKwindla ngowe-March 1951. IQumrhu lezoMthetho laqala ukubona ilanga ngowe-1892 njenge-De Ingelijfde Orde van Procureurs en Notarissen. Ngowe-1902 yathi yaba liQumrhu loMthetho eTransvaal, omnye wamalungu ahloniphekileyo yaba nguMahatma Ghandi, owathi wamkelwa njengegqwetha ngowe-1903. Ngowe-1975 laye labizwa ngokutsha ngokuba liQumrhu loMthetho laseTransvaal kwaye namhlanje laziwa ngokuba liQumrhu loMthetho lePhondo laseMntla (The Law Society of the Northern Provinces). Emva kokugqwessa kuvavanyo lwakhe, uMandela waya kusebenzela uHM Basner njengegqwetha eligcweleyo. UHymie Basner wayengumxhasi onovelwano wamalungelo abaMnyama. NgokukaMandela ‘Kwixesha leenyanga ezithile ndisebenza phaya amaxesha amaninzi ndandisenkundleni ndimele abantu befemu abanininzi abaMnyama.......emva kwamava endathi ndawazuza phaya ndandikulungele ukuyosebenza ndizimele.’

Ngokwamaxwebhu agciniweyo weQumrhu loMthetho, uMandela waye wazisa iQumrhu loMthetho ngomhla we-5 kweyoMsintsi ngowe-1952 ukuba wayengazisebenzeli. Unobhala wakhe yayinguZubelda Patel owathi walandela uMandela ukusuka kuHM Basner. UOliver Tambo naye ngeli xesha wayesebenzela ifemu yomthetho eyayibizwa Kovalsky no Tuch kwaye uMandela wayesoloko emndwendwela apho ngexesha lesidlo sasemini. Ngokwamaxwebhu agciniweyo weQumrhu loMthetho, uMandela wabacebisa ngomhla we-4 kweyoMnga ngowe-1953 ukuba wayesebenza ngokubambisana noOliver Tambo. URuth Mompati naye wathi wazibandakanya nabo kulo nyaka esebenza njengomabhalane wezoMthetho. 

 

  OliverTambo300 220   mandela lawyer img 300 220  
  Oliver Tambo    Nelson Mandela  
         

Kwaba yintsbenziswano yokuqala yefemu yabantu abaMnyama eMzantsi Afrika kwaye yabizwa ngokuba yiMandela and Tambo Attorneys.

UMandela ukhankanya kwincwadi engobomi bakhe iLong Walk to Freedom:

‘Ekuqaleni iMandela and Tambo yayicelwe ngabantu abafuna inkonzo. Yaye ingesithi sodwa amagqwetha aMnyama eMzantsi Afrika kodwa yayisithi sodwa ifemu yamagqwetha aMnyama. Kubantu abaMnyama sasiyifemu ekhethwa kuqala kwaye apho abantu bebhenela khona. Ukufikelela kwiiofisi zethu ekuseni sasithukuza phakathi kwenyambalala yabantu kwindawo yokudlula, kwizitephu nakwindlwana yethu yokulinda.

Ndakhawuleza ndaqonda ukuba iMandela and Tambo yayithetha ntoni kubantu abaMnyama abakumgangathio osezantsi. Yayiyindawo apho bebenokuza kuyo bafumane ukumanyelwa ngovelwano nguzakwabo ogqibeleleyo, indawo apho babengenakunikwa uphuma phele okanye bakhohliswe, indawo apho babenokuthi bazive bezingca ngenene ukumelwa ngamadoda anolusu olufana nolwabo. ‘Esi sisizathu nje kwasekuqaleni esandikhokhelela ekubeni ndibe ligqwetha, kwaye umsebenzi wam amaxesha amaninzi ubundenza ndizive ndithathe esona sigqibo silungileyo.'

Iiyure zokusebenza kule ntsebenziswano yayiyintsimbi yesi-8.00 ukuya kweyesi-17.00 sasiye sivalele ixesha lesidlo sasemini size esi sibini siphume siyofumana ikhari. Umgca omtsha wabafuna uncedo wawube sele umile ngeyure yesidlo sasemini. UMandela wayeqhuba inqwelo yakhe eyayimbala uluhlaza (owayeyibiza nge Oldsmobile enkulu) ukusuka eOrlando esiya eChancellor House, enxibe idyasi eyenziwe yaphinda phindwa esifubeni enamaqhosha exina (ibrassi) eyayenziwe nguAlfred Khan, owayethi enze iisuti zikaHarry Oppenheimer. UMandela noOppenheimer basenokuba babesebenzisa abenzi beesuti abanye, kodwa izimvo zabo bezingafani. UHarry Oppenheimer, ngelo xesha owayelilungu lepalamente leUnited Party kwisixeko saseKimberley, waxelela iphepha iCape Times ngomhla wama-26 kweyeKhala ngowe-1956: “Kubalulekile, noxa kunjalo, ubukhulu bomlinganiselo wokohlukana, wokuphila, neendawo zokuhlala ugcinwe kangangeminyaka emininzi ezayo, kuba umntu oMnyama ‘’ubukhulu becala ebengaphucukanga kwezopolitiko, amasiko kunye nenkolo yakhe’’. Waqikelela ukuphela kweyantlukwano, kodwa yayiza kuthatha iminyaka emininzi ukuphumelelisa oku, ‘’kuba umntu oMnyama ubefanele anyuselwe kumgangatho wamaYurophu.”

Ngeentetho zonke uMandela wayeligqwetha elisebenza kakuhle, noxa enkundleni ngamanye amaxesha wayeneempawu zokungathi useqongeni lemidlalo okanye ngokuqaqambileyo. Uzakwabo uOliver Tambo wayohluke mpela kuye – ethule, ecinga kwaye avelele kwakhona into. Ngokutsho kwakhe, uMandela wayengagqibelelisi ekwenzeni umsebenzi ophathelene neencwadi okanye iimali, xeshikweni uTambo wayenobuchule nononophelo koku. Esi sibini ke ngoko senza isicwangciso esingekho sikweni ukuba uMandela yena ufanele ajongane nobuninzi bamatyala enkundla aze uTambo ajongane nobuninzi bomsebenzi weofisi. Ngenxa yokuba uMandela ikakhulu wayebambeke kwizixeko zoMantyi eGoli ngenxa yokuthintelwa kwakhe wayengenako ukuchophela amatyala ngaphandle kwezi zixeko. UTambo wayefanele achophele lo msebenzi nto leyo eyakhokhelela ekuqhwaleleni komsebenzi wabo.

 

  mandela and moroka 300 220   burning of passes  
  Kuququzelelo lweNkcaso ngowe-   Uququzelelo lweNkcaso-   
   1952, kunye noDr Moroka.   kutshiswa iidompasi   
         

Ngowe-1950 uRhulumente waye wangenisa ngempumelelo uMthetho weSuppression of Communism Act wokubhangisa uMbutho wamaKomanisi, ngelo xesha owawunamalungu amalunga ne2500.UMbhangisi wathi wonyulwa ukuze akhokhele ukuchithwa kwemanyano yamaKomanisi kwaye aqulunqe uludwe lwamaKomanisi, abaxhasi bamaKomanisi kunye nabo babekhe bangamaKomanisi. Ngowe-1958 umbhangisi woMbutho wamaKomanisi wakhankanya malunga nabantu abangama-600 phantsi koMthetho kuquka noWalter Sisulu no Nelson Mandela. Ngowe-1968, kwaye ngexesha bebhadla eRobben Island befezekisa izigwebo zabo, abahlobo abasondeleyo kubo bathi bafaka isicelo ngempumelelo kwinkundla ukuba isuse amagama wabo kuludwe olo.

Uququzelelo lweNkcaso yeMithetho engenaBulungisa laqala ngomhla wama-26 kweyeSilimela ngowe-1952. KweyoMnga ngowe-1952 uMphathiswa wezoBulungisa wakhupha isaziso ethintela uMandela ukuba achophele nayiphi na indibano kwizixeko zikaMantyi malunga neenyanga ezintandathu, waye kwakhona wathintelwa ukuba angahlali nakweyiphi indawo yeNdibano (Union) ngaphandle kokuba sisixeko sikaMantyi eGoli. Amapolisa adungadunga uququzelelo olwaluqhubeka ngokuthi abambe iinkokheli ezininzi zolu ququzelelo, kuquka uMandela, owathi wabekwe ityala ngaphanti koMthetho iSuppression of Communism. Kwakunabatyholwa abangama- 20, kwaye isankxwe sengxolo enkundleni sasiphezulu kangangokuba uMantyi wacela uMongameli weANC, uGq Moroka (owangena ezinyaweni zika Gq Xuma njengoMongameli weANC ngowe-1949) ukuba acele inyambalala ichithakale, owathi wenza njalo.  Bonke abatyholwa baye bafunyaniswa benetyala lokufaka ifuthe leenjongo zobuKomanisi, kodwa izigwebo zabo zaye zaxhonywa. Ijaji yetyala uRumpff isazisa ukuba kudala bexelela abaqhankqalazi ukuba mabaqhankqalaze ‘ngenzolo’ ukuze bachasele kulo naluphi ‘uhlobo okanye imeko yobungxobongela’. Ngomhla wama-20 kweyeSilimela ngowe-1949 uMphathiswa wezoBulungisa uCR Swart waxelele indlu yeBhunga oku: ‘Kunjalo nje, oomantyi bethu kunye neejaji baye baqeqeshwa ukuba baqaphele ‘unqevu’ xa bembona, kunye nabanye abaninzi abantu abaMnyama, Ndiye ndaqaphela, ndazama ukubonakalisa ukuba ingathi bathembekile, kodwa abathembekanga ngale ndlela babonakala ngayo’. 

 

  suppression of communism trial   trial support 300 220  
  Amashumi amabini eenkokheli    Abaxhasi beze eTyaleni  
   ejongene nezityholo        
         

Ngenxa yesi sigwebo iQumrhu loMthetho laseTransvaal lafaka isicelo sokuba kususwe igama likaMandela kuludwe lwamagama amagqwetha. Le nyewe yaxoxwa kwiNkundla Ephakamileyo kwaye uMandela wayemelwe ngusihlalo woMvalo waseGoli, uWalter Pollak. Inkundla yaye yala ukuchophela eso sicelo kwaye yafumanisa ukuba, noxa izenzo zakhe bezinokuthathwa njengezinobuzaza, ubekhuthele ukuba abe luncedo kuluntu lwakhe olungekhoMhlophe. ‘Inkundla yaye yaba nombono woba oku akusosizathu esiphathekayo sokuba igama lakhe lingade lisuswe kuludwe lwamagama amagqwetha’. ‘NgokweQumrhu loMthetho leIncorporated Law Society of theTransvaal v Mandela 1954 (3) SA 102 (T), inkundla kwakhona yafumanisa ukuba linokususwa igama lakhe kuphela xa into awayeyenzile ibonakalisa ukuba akanaxabiso lokuba angahlala kwizithuba zobu bugcisa buhloniphekileyo. Lwaqhubeka olu xhwithaxhwithwano, kwakhona, ngokwesikrokro esingesiso sokuba ngumsebenzi wenkundla ukugweba igqwetha elisele lifunyenwe linetyala’. Isicelo eso saye sachithwa.

Ngomhla wama-25 ukuya kowama- 26 kuCanzibe ngowe-1955, abantu abamalunga nama-3000 babonakala bezibandakanya neCongress of the People eyabuthana eKliptown apho kwaye kwamkelwa iFreedom Charter. Ezinye iintshukumo ezibalulekileyo ngelo xesha kwaba luququzelelo kwiindawo eziseNtshona (bechasene nokugxothwa okunyanzelisayo kwiindawo zokuhlala), kunye noququzelelo lwenkcaso yemfundo eyayisekelwe kuphela abaMnyama.

Ekuseni ngolwesithathu, ngomhla we-5 kweyoMnga ngowe-1956, kwabonwa ‘elona nyathelo eli lodwa elalikhwankqisa elenziwa ngamapolisa kwiUnion’, njengokuba amapolisa, aye phethe izigunyaziso zokubanjwa ezazityikitywe nguMantyi waseGoli zichaphazela iinkokheli ezininzi zopolitiko kwaye zabanjwa zityholwa ngokungcatsha umbuso. Abatyholwa babesiza enkundleni beliqela labantu abangamashumi amabini ngexesha. Bonke baye babekwa ityala ngokusesikweni lokuba bangcatshe umbuso baze bagcinwa eluvalelweni eFort, Intolongo eMbindini waseGoli, kwade kwaba ngumhla we-19 kweyoMnga ngowe-1956. UNelson Mandela noOliver Tambo babeyinxalenye yabatyholwa – Ityala lokungcatsha umbuso njengoko lalisaziwa kanjalo latsala iminyaka emininzi kwaye laba nesiphumo esaqhwalelisa ukusebenza njengamagqwetha kwesi sibini.

 

  passes   proof  
  UNelson Mandela ngexesha    Umbuso wavelisa ubungqina   
  lokuququzelela inkcaso    bamaxwebhu angama 10 000   
  yamapasi amanina   ulungiselela utshutshiso  
         

Amalungiselelo amade wokutshutshisa aqala ngomhla we-19 kweyoMnga ngowe-1956. Umbuso wenza isityholo sokuba iFreedom Charter yaqulunqwa yiANC, SAIC, SACP kunye neCOD kwaye yayixela amanyathelo okubhuquka umbuso nokwakhiwa kombuso wamaKomanisi; nokuthi abanye babatyholwa benza iintetho ezikhuthaza inyathelo elithe xhaxhe ngepalamente ukufezekisa le njongo i.e. uvukelo olwaluzakwenziwa ngobundlobongela nokuphalala kwegazi. Omnye wamagqwetha ombuso, uVernon Berrange QC, waxoxa ukuba ityala lokungcatsha elibekwa aba bangama-156 lingalinganiswa neqhinga lopolitiko elifana nelo lalisenziwa ngabasemagunyeni ngexesha le Inquisition okanye iReichstag ngetyala lomlilo eJamani. Igqwetha labatyholwa laqinisekisa ukuba abatyholwa baye ‘’babangamaxhoba opolitiko olufana nekayiti ebhabhayo kwicala labo babenoxanduva lokutshutshisa.’’ “Eli akusilo tyala nje eliqhelekileyo”, utshilo, “ukuba ubani unengcinga mayelana nohlobo olundlongondlongo okwenzeke ngalo ukubanjwa’’. Amanye amalungu eSpecial Branch of the CID bavuma ngexesha behlohlwa imibuzo ligqwetha labatyholwa ukuba iANC ibisoloko ixinzelela “imo ezolileyo yemigushuzo yopolitiko.” Amalungiselelo otshutshiso aqqitywa ngeyeDwarha ngowe-1957, kwaye amatyala arhoxiswa kubantu abangama-64 kuquka uOliver Tambo, nomongameli weANC uAlbert Luthuli. Ityala latsala iminyaka kwaye ngeyoKwindla ngowe-1961 uMantyi u Rumpff wehlisa isigwebo, ekhulula bonke abatyholwa. Oku kwakusekelwe ekubeni ‘uRhulumente akakwazanga ukungqinisisa ukuba ukulwaulo lwamaKomanisi nokuthi utshutshiso luthe lwasilela ukungqinisisa ukuba iCongress yayijolise ukuphumelelisa uhlaselo eyayifuna ukulenza ‘ngobundlobongela’.

 

  song of protest   luthuli and tambo  
  UMandela ephakathi kwingoma    Albert Luthuli & Oliver Tambo  
  yoqhankqalazo,    - Bobabini babekhululwe   
  eDrill Hall, eRhawutini    kwiTyala lokuNgcatsha   
  ngowe - 1956   umbuso ngowe - 1958  
         

NgeyoMqungu ngowe-1958 uMandela wafaka isicelo enkundleni yamatyala sokuba aqhawule umtshato no Evelyn, uqhawulo olo olwathi lwaqosheliswa ngomhla we-19 kweyoKwindla ngowe-1958. Ngokwesigqibo soqhawulo mtshato esenziwa yinkundla, uEvelyn wanikwa ulawulo nogcino lwendlu e 8115 Orlando. Wathi wafumana ubunini bomhlaba owawuthengwe nguMandela eMthatha, wagcina zonke iimpahla ezazinokufuduswa, kunye nesixa semali esasiziiponti ezingama-50. Waye wanikwa nelungelo lokugcina abantwana abathathu ababeselula kunye nemali yesondlo eyayiziiponti ezili-15 ngenyanga ukondla abantwana abhatale neendleko zesikolo. NgeyeSilimela ngowe-1958 uMandela waba nethuba lokuba kurhoxiswe ukuvalwa kwakhe umlomo wakhululeleka kangangeentsuku ezintandathu waze ngelo xesha wazimanya ngeqhina lomtshato noWinnie kwisithili saseBizana ngomhla we-14 kweyeSilimela ngowe-1958. Wathi wabanjwa (uWinnie) okokuqala ngeyeDwarha ngowe-1958, emva kokuba ezibandakanye namanina eANC aseOrlando kuqhankqalazo luka wonke wonke kwaye wavalelwa iiveki ezimbini. UZenani wazalwa ngomhla we-5 kweyoMdumba ngowe-1959 yena uZindzi wazalwa ngomhla wama-23 kweyoMnga ngowe-1960. Imiqathango yasentolongweni yayingavumeli ukundwendwelwa ngabantu abangaphantsi kweminyaka eli-16 ubudala, oko kwamzisela intlungu engathethekiyo xeshikweni evalelwe uMandela.

UJohn Vorster waye wonyulwa njengoMphathiswa wezoBulungisa ngowe-1960. NjengoMandela, uVorster naye wayeligqwetha elalike labanjwa phakathi kweminyaka yowe-1942 nowe-1944 eKoffiefontein ebanjelwe iinkolo zakhe zopolitiko. UVorster wonyukela kwinqanaba lokuba nguNjengele kwiphiko lezoMkhosi waseOssewabrandwag, noxa wenza ibango lokuba akazange enze naziphi na izenzo zokudubaduba. Wayesoloko efunga ngoku ‘tyumza amaKomanisi kwaye ngokufutshane nje emva kokonyulwa waye wangenisa ‘umthetho wokuvalelwa iintsuku ezingama-90’, apho umntu ebezakubaseluvalelweni iintsuku ezingama-90 ngaphandle kokubekwa ityala.

Ngomhla wama-21 kweyoKwindla ngowe-1960 kwaye kwabakho indyikitya yokubulawa kwabantu eSharpeville ngaphantsi komthetho we-Unlawful Organizations Act, amaqela amabini iPAC neANC aye avalwa umlomo neentshukumo zawo. Kwaye kwabhengezwa imeko yongxamiseko eyayizakutsala iintsuku ezingama-156 – ngelinye ixesha kwaye kwavalelwa abantu abangama-21 000 baphoswa eModder B nakwezinye iinkampu zokuvalelwa.

 

 

  state of emergency   nelson winnie zindzi 300 220  
  April 1960:   December 1960:  
  A State of Emergency was    Nelson & Winnie Mandela with  
  declared - Army in Johannesburg   their second daughter Zindzi  
         

NgeyeDwarha ngowe-1960, urhulumente kaVerwoerd wenza inkqubo yokuhlolwa kwezimvo zoluntu oluMhlophe ukwazisa ukuba ilizwe libeyiRiphabliki. Abaninzi baye bavota ngokuxhasa oku.  Usuku lokwaziswa kweRiphabliki lwaye lwabekelwa isikhumbuzo seUnion samashumi amahlanu ananye, ngomhla wama-31 kuCanzibe ngowe-1961. KuCanzibe ngowe-1961 kwiintsuku ezilishumi emva kokuba kuphelile ukuvalwa kwakhe umlomo okwesibini kwisithuba seminyaka emihlanu, uMandela wabonakala kwinkomfa ye-All-In Africa ePietermaritzburg, apho kwakukho malunga ne-1 400 yabathunywa ababeyizimasile.

Babebhengezela ‘umgaqo siseko wesininzi ongenacalucalulo’ kwaye benyanzelisa ukubanjwa komhlangano kazwelonke wabathunywa abonyuliweyo bawo wonke amadoda namanina ngokulinganayo, kungakethe hlanga, bala okanye inkolo. Kulo mhlangano kwakuza kuphuma isiseko esigcweleyo sorhulumente wesininzi, uMandela waxelela intlanganiso oko. UMandela ngokukhawuleza waye wazibonakalisa njengoyena mntu onokubangcono njengesithethi sikawonke wonke eyathi iANC yamazi. Xa amapolisa egabadela, uMandela nezinye iinkokheli baye bayokuzifihla.

 

  all in conference   fake passports 300 220  
  Ethetha noluntu    Ipaspoti kaMandela yobuxoki ezibiza ngo  
  kwiAll- in- Conference ePietermaritzburg   David Motsamayi  
    – kuCanzibe ngowe-1961      
         

Amapolisa ezokhuseleko, awathi ‘’azakulombula ucwambu lweenkokheli ezingeyingabo abaMhlophe xeshweni lusaphuphuma’’, aqala ukuzingela uMandela noogxa bakhe bezopolitiko. Oku kwenzeka inyanga yonke, kodwa akukho suku uMandela wayengekho ngalo kwizihloko zeendaba. Kwakukho ukubethwa kweengcingo kubahleli bamaphepha ndaba kwaye uMandela waba ngoyena mntu ilizwi lakhe lathi laziwa ngcono eMzantsi Afrika, kwaye wayebamba imihlangano ekhusini kunye neentatheli zeendaba. Wayezifihla aphinde angazifihli, uMandela wayesoloko ekhona – phantsi nje kweempumlo zamapolisa. Isimemezo sokuhlala ekhaya kodwa asizange siphumelele ukubamba ngokupheleleyo iingcinga zabantu abaninzi ababengenangqondo yezopolitiko.

Ngomhla we-8 kweyoMqungu ngowe-1961 uMandela waye wazisa iQumrhu loMthetho ukuba ngoku uzakusebenza njengomabhalane onobugcisa. Ngomhla we-7 kweyeSilimela ngowe-1961 iQumrhu loMthetho laye labikelwa nguMandela ukuba ngoku akasayi kusebenza njengomabhalane onobugcisa kodwa uza kwenza ‘izingxungxu’ kwiNkundla kaMantyi. Ngomhla we-5 kweyeKhala ngowe-1961 iQumrhu loMthetho laye labikelwa yifemu yomthetho yaseGermiston iH Davidoff and Herman ukuba uMnumzana Mandela uyekile ukusebenza. Oku kwakusisiqinisekiso sokugqibela sonxibelelwano uMandela awaluthumela kwiQumrhu loMthetho njengegqwetha – owayefuna ukuthatha nyathelo limbi.

Ukuya ekupheleni kwesiqingatha sowe-1961 uMandela, Sisulu nezinye iinkokheli zeANC kunye namalungu eqela lamaKominisi bayila “Umkhonto we Sizwe” ukuze benze inkqubo yobundlobongela beqondo elithile. Ekupheleni kowe-1961 kwiindawo ezininzi elizweni, kwaqalwa amaqela abagrogrisi kwaye kwaye iibhombu zaziqhushumba kwizakhiwo ekwakujoliswe kuzo. UMandela wayebonakala engabonakali kwiikona ezininzi zoMzantsi Afrika kwaye oonondaba bembiza ngo  “The Black Pimpernel”.Wayethi achithe ixesha elide kwindawana yaseRivonia, ezifihlile ebonakala ngathi ngumntu osebenza egadini okanye umqhubi wenqwelo. NgeyoMqungu ngowe-1962 wayeza kudibana kwakhona nogxa wakhe owayesakusebenza naye ngezomthetho, uOliver Tambo, eTopiya, apho uTambo wayethunyelwe khona ukuze aqalise ukubakho kwe ANC ngaphandle kwelizwe.

 

  algeria 300 220   rivonia sleeping quarters bed 300 220  
  UMandela eseAlgeria ngowe-1962    Iindawo zokulala eRivonia  
  Endwendwele abezomkhositing   Ngexesha esasabile  
    military officers      
         

UMandela waye warhubuluziswa ngaphandle koMzantsi Afrika ehamba ngomgaqo weenqwelo ukuya eLobatsi eBotswana, waze wakhwela inqwelo moya ukuya eAddis Ababa. Ngokwencwadana yakhe yobomi uMandela wacingelwa ukuba lundwendwe lukaRhulumente waze ‘waphathwa kakuhle’ ziinkokheli ezifana noJulius Nyerere, Habib Bourguiba, Sekou Toure, Leophold Senghor, Ben Balla waseNigeria kunye noWilliam Tubman waseLiberia. ELondon wadibana noHugh Gaitskell weLabour Party, kunye noJo Grimmond weLabour Party. UHaile Selassie waseTopiya wanika uMandela ipaspoti yobuxoki esebenzisa igama likaDavid Motsamayi, owayesakuba ngomnye owancedwa yiofisi yomthetho kaMandela and Tambo. UMandela waqhubeka esebenzisa eli gama lobuxoki naxa wayesele ebuyele eMzantsi Afrika.

Ngomhla we-5 kweyeThupha ngowe-1962 uMandela wabanjwa kwimida yaseHowick, eKZN ezenza umqhubi wenqwelo– wayesuka entlanganisweni noLuthuli, ezokumnika ingxelo yehambo yakhe yasemazweni.

KuCanzibe ngowe-2016 iphepha ndaba iSunday Times yabhentsisa ukuba uDavid Rickard, owayesebenza njengeUS Vice Consul eThekwini kwaye ekwasebenza njengeCIA, wavuma ukuba nguye owabangungqondo ngqondo owathi wakhokhelela ekubanjweni kukaMandela.

 

 

  cecil williams   mandela traditional dress 300 220  
  UCecil Williams wayebanjwe    Njengoko wayevele phambi   
  no Mandela ngomhla    kwenkundla yamatyala   
   we-5 kweyeThupha    ngeyeDwarha  
   ngowe-1962    ngowe- 1962  
         

UMandela waye watshutshiswa eJohannesburg Regional Court ngokuthi uphembelele uqhushululu kwaye waphuma ngaphandle kweli lizwe engenayo ipaspoti waye wafunyaniswe enetyala. Waye wagwetywa iminyaka emi-5 esentolongweni, waze wathunyelwa esiqithini eRobben Island, apho wavalelwa yedwa. NgeyeSilimela ngowe-1963, ngaphezulu kwezenzo ezingama-200 zokudubaduba zaye zaqhubeka eMzantsi Afrika. Ngomhla we-11 kweyeKhala ngowe-1963 amapolisa agabadela indlu yaseRivonia, eyayiqulethe amaxwebhu angqingqwa oyamanisa uMandela nabaqulunqi beyelenqe. Wasuswa entolongweni waziswa emkhumbini eRivonia kwaye, ekuqoshelisweni kwetyala wafunyaniswe enetyala kuwo wonke amatyala amane abebekwe wona waze wagwetywa ubomi entolongweni.

Iofisi yeChancellor House yaye yatshatyalaliswa ngumlilo ngowe-1960 kwaye oku kunye nemigushuzo yabo yezepolitiki kwenza kube nzima ukuba baqhubeke nomsebenzi wezomthetho yaze lo ofisi yavalwa. Ngowe-2011 xa isakhiwo sasisemngciphekweni wokuwa, safumana ukuvuselelwa kwakhona yiJohannesburg Development Agency ngemali eyi 7 million.

Iiofis ezintathu zefemu yomthetho ziza kuqulatha ithala leencwadi eliza kuba namaxwebhu amatyala ezomthetho maxwebhu awathi anikezelwa yifemu aza kukhutshwa ngekhompuyutha.

Isakhiwo esigcina izinto zembali kumgangatho ongezantsi kwaye oku kuzakuqulatha amaxwebhu ayengeniswe enkundleni yamatyala, imifanekiso engazange ipapashwe, imiyalezo yokuvalwa umlomo -   zonke ezibalulekileyo ekusebenzeni kwamagqwetha eMandela and Tambo Attorneys.

Igqwetha uGeorge Bizos, umhlobo kaMandela osenyongweni ubomi bakhe bonke ube elundwendwe olukhethekileyo ekuqalweni kokuvuselelwa kwesakhiwo kwaye wathi: Ndichulumance kakhulu sesi siqalo sokuvuselelwa kwesi sakhiwo sisixeko; sisakhiwo esiphilayo, indawo yokuhlala ephilayo ukuhlonipha uNelson Mandela, Oliver Tambo, Duma Nokwe, Mendi Msimang, Godfrey Pitje nabanye.  

  chancellor house restored 320   office mandela tambo 320  
  iChancellor House    Indawo encinci yolwamkelo  & 
  Emva kokulungiswa   neeofisi zika
      Nelson Mandela & Oliver Tambo 
       

Kungexesha wayesalinde isigwebo kwityala laseRivonia apho wabhala waze wapasa uvavanyo lwakhe lokuqala lwezifundo zeLLB njengomfundi wangaphandle obhalise kwiDyunivesithi yaseLondon. Ngowe-1967 ngexesha eseRobben Island waqhubela kunyaka wakhe wokugqibela apho waphinda walibaziseka. Umsebenzi wakhe zange ukwazi ukwenzeka ngenxa yokuba ngowe-1970 urhulumente wavala ukuba afumane iincwadi zakhe ezaziphuma ngaphesheya kweelwandle zifumaneka kummeli welizwe laseBrithane kweli.

Ngowe-1974, waqoshelisa izifundo zakhe zeLLB eWits, evusa ukusabela kweDyunivesithi okukrokrayo nokugcine umthetho endaweni yokusabela okunovelwano. Ngelo xesha, Isebe leeNtolongo lavala unxibelelwano lwakhe neWits kwaye lamalela imvume yokuqhubeka izifundo zakhe zeLLB neWits, kungakhathaliseki ukuba yiLondon, Wits okanye iUnisa.

Ngenxa yeso siphumo, uMandela wanyanzeleka ukuba abuyele kwizifundo zakhe zesidanga sokuqala waze wabhalisela izifundo zoMthetho kwiBCom eUnisa. Ekugqibeleni, ngowe-1981, kwaba yintloko yezomthetho eUnisa, uNjingalwazi Willem Joubert, owaqononondisa urhulumente ukuba yinto eyintlekisa ukuba aqhubeke evalela  uMandela ukuba enze iLLB yakhe, kwathi ke wavunyelwa ukubhalisela iLLB eUnisa, awathi wayiphumelela ngowe-1989, kwiminyaka engama-46 emva kokuba wathi wabhalisela esi sidanga eWits.

Amagqwetha amaninzi ajongana nemiba kaNelson Mandela emayelana nezomthetho xeshikweni yena eseluvalelweni. Ifemu yomthetho eyayiseKapa iBernadt, Vukic, Potash & Getz (eyayisakufudula inguFrank, Bernadt & Joffe) yaququzelela umsebenzi ukusukela ngowe-1966 – 1990. Ngowe-2004 uHiman Bernadt wanikela kwiZiko Leenkumbulo (Centre of Memory) amaxwebhu kaMandela ezomthetho. Ephinda phinda, uMandela wayebhenela ekugrogriseni ngokuthatha inyathelo lomthetho apho abasemagunyeni babesophula okanye basilele ukulandela kwale mithetho yabo, kwaye amaxwebhu efemu achaza ngokuzimisela kukaMandela ukucela umngeni kwinkqubo yolawulo esebenzisa zonke iindlela owayenokufikelela kuzo. 

 

  daughters   mandela mothers pain 1  
  Iintombi zikaNelson Mandela   Umama kaNelson Mandela -  
  & Winnie Madikizela:    uNoqaphi Nosekeni, inkosikazi yesithathu   
  Zindzi & Zenani   kwamane ka Henry Gadla's   
         

Ngomhla we-5 kweyoMnga ngowe-2013, uNelson Mandela walishiya eli eneminyaka engama-95. Kusuku olulandelayo iQumrhu lomthetho eMzantsi Afrika (The Law Society of South Africa), egameni lamaqela amathandathu phantsi kwalo lakhupha le ntetho.

‘Waye engumfanekiso ongcwele kwihlabathi, kusapho lwakhe nakuluntu lwethu, ubawo, kodwa kubungcali bomthetho wayengumtu owayembethe iinqobo abathi bonke abasebenza kulo msebenzi bazinqwenela: uxolelwaniso, ubulungisa boluntu kunye nentlonipho yeenqobo ezisemgangathweni ezifakwe kuMthetho wamaLungelo.

Njengabasebenzi bobugcisa siziva sihloniphekile ngokuba akhethe ukusebenza phakathi kwethu. ‘Yena, noOliver Tambo, bavula ifemu yokuqala yamagqwetha aMnyama elizweni, benika ithemba nesidima kubantu ababephelelwe lithemba, benza umkhomba ndlela kwisizukulwana sethu sangoku samagqwetha’

Uxwebhu lomyolelo kaMandela laqala ukubhalwa ngowe-2004 laze lalungiswa kwakhona ngowe-2008.

UWinnie Madikizela-Mandela, owayeyinkosikazi yesibini kaMandela zange abandakanywe kuxwebhu lomyolelo. Yena noMandela baqhawula umtshato ngowe-1996.

Ngowe-2014 igqwetha likaWinnie Mandela lafaka ibango enkundleni lokuba umzi kaMandela wazuzwa ngexesha engekaliqhawuli iqhina lomtshato noMandela kwaye ngokwesiko labaThembu nguye onelungelo kuwo. NgeyoKwindla ngowe-2016 iNkundla Ephakamileyo yaseMthatha yasichitha eso sicelo esihamba neendleko zebango elo. NgeyeThupha ngowe-2016 wafaka isibheno kwiSCA esichasa eso sigqibo.

NgoCanzibe ngowe-2016 kwakhona kwathi kwaqosheliswa ilifa likaNelson Mandela. Umabi welifa uGeorge Bizos noDikgang Moseneke balichaza ilifa likaMandela ngale ndlela:

UMachel wanikwa ubunini bezindlu ezine ababengabanini bazo bobabini eziseMozambique. Uza kuthi afumane neemoto zabo, ubuqheleqhele awabufumana ngexesha bezimanya ngeqhina lomtshato kunye nazo zonke iimali bebezigcine ebhankini nezinye bebezonga kumaziko email athile.

UMachel noMandela babetshate umtshato wobunini obulinganayo (community of property). Waye eyinkosikazi yakhe yesithathu. Abantwana bakaMachel nomyeni wakhe ongasekhoyo owayengumongameli eMozambique uSamora Machel, abangu Josina noMalengane Machel, emnye wafumana iR3m.

Washiya iR100 000 kumntwana ngamnye kwabathandathu bakaMachel owayebafumene kumtshato wakhe wangaphambili. UMachel wanikwa iintsuku ezingama-90 ukuba enze isigqibo sokuba uyalinikezela na ilungelo lakhe lokufumana isiqingatha selifa likaMandela, utshilo uMoseneke, nto leyo wathi ekugqibeleni wayamkela.

Ikhaya likaMandela eliseHoughton, Johannesburg, Cape Town, Qunu naseMthatha eMpuma Koloni lafakwa kwitrasti yosapho.  Amalungu osapho aya kuthi asebenzise le mizi emihlanu njengendawo yokuhlala ngohlobo ababona ngalo.

 

 

  house at victor verster   retirement home at qunu  
  Indlu ekumhlaba weNtolongo yase   Elalisakuba likhaya likaMandela   
  Victor Verster   Lomhlalaphantsi eQunu  
         

Iimali zohlulwa hlulwa ngale ndlela:

  • Abantwana bakaMandela benkosikazi yokuqala uEvelyn, Makgatho Mandela noMakaziwe Mandela, babeza kufumana iR3.5m kunye ne R3.3m ngokulandelelana.
  • Abantwana bakaMakgatho, Mandla, Ndaba, Mbuso noAndile Mandela, babeza kufumana emnye i R1.1m.
  • Abantwana bakaMakaziwe - Dumani noTukwini Mandela, Adjao Amuah no Kweku Amuah – babeza kufumana emnye iR1.1m.
  • Abantwana bakaThembekile Mandela, Ndileka noNandi Mandela, babeza kufumana emnye kwimali yelifa iR3.3m. UThembekile wayengunyana omdala kaMandela noEvelyn.
  • Abantwana bakaMadikizela-Mandela's, Zenani Mandela-Dlamini noZindzi Mandela, babeza kufumana emnye iR3m.
  • Abantwana bakaZenani - Zinhle, Zaziwe noZamaswazi – babeza kufumana emnye iR100 000.
  •  Bambatha, Zondwa, Zwelabo noZoleka, abangabantwana bakaZindzi, babeza kufumana emnye iR100 000.
  • Izizukulwana zikaMandela, Zozuko Mandela, ongumntwana kaZamaswazi, wayeza kufumana iR100 000 kwimali yelifa.
  • Abasebenzi abalithoba, ababesebenza ngokusondeleyo noMandela, kuquka owayengumncedisi siqu sakhe uLa Grange, wafumana iR50 000 emnye kwimali yelifa.
  • Amaziko emfundo – iDyunivesithi yaseWitwatersrand kunye neyaseDikeni (Fort Hare) – afumana inye iR100 000.
  • Isikolo samabanga aphakamileyo eQunu eMpuma Koloni kunye nesamabanga aphakamileyo eOrlando West eSoweto, Gauteng, zafumana sisinye iR100 000. Amaziko ayeza kusebenzisa le mali njengenkxaso yemali yokufunda.
  • IANC yayiza kufumana ubuncinane umyinge we10% kuye kubuninzi bowe30% kwimali zokuhlonipha ezisuka kwiNRM Family Trust.

Igqwetha likaMandela nelingumhlobo wakhe uGeorge Bizos wathi ilifa elibhalwe phantsi libonisa ukuba uMandela ebengazicingeli yedwa.

"Iminqweno yakhe kwilifa elibhaliweyo lushwankathelo lweminqweno yakhe ebomini bakhe. Uthe wanikezela nakumaziko emfundo. Ebengazicingeli yedwa, ‘’utshilo ebindekile uBizos emva kokufunda ingxelo yelifa elibhaliweyo.

 

  mandela pic 1   mandela s favourite 300 220  
  Kwixesha elide ihlabathi lalingazi    UMadiba kunye nomnye   
  ukuba uMandela    'wabasenyongweni kuye’  
  wayebukeka kanjani.   Uthini uMadiba?  
  Olu luluvo lomzobi.   Cinga uthathe isigqibo!  
         

ENKOSI NGOKUFUNDA

 

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